Oracle Recovery Tools修复空闲坏块

我们经常遇到由于某种原因,表上面有坏块,通过event或者dbms包跳过坏块,然后重建该表之后,但是dbv和rman检查坏块依旧存在(而且导致常规情况下rman无法正常备份),最近在Oracle Recovery Tools工具中增加的这种异常数据块修复功能,通过试验重现类似故障:
创建表并进行破坏

C:\Users\XFF>sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on 星期一 8月 8 14:00:34 2022

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


连接到:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> create tablespace ts_test datafile 'e:/oradata/test/ts_test.dbf' size 128M autoextend on;

表空间已创建。

SQL> create table t_xifenfei tablespace ts_test
  2  as
  3  select * from dba_objects;

表已创建。

SQL> alter system checkpoint;

系统已更改。

SQL> set pages 100
SQL> select file_id,block_id,blocks from dba_extents where segment_name='T_XIFENFEI';

   FILE_ID   BLOCK_ID     BLOCKS
---------- ---------- ----------
         5        128          8
         5        136          8
         5        144          8
         5        152          8
         5        160          8
         5        168          8
         5        176          8
         5        184          8
         5        192          8
         5        200          8
         5        208          8
         5        216          8
         5        224          8
         5        232          8
         5        240          8
         5        248          8
         5        256        128
         5        384        128
         5        512        128
         5        640        128
         5        768        128
         5        896        128
         5       1024        128
         5       1152        128
         5       1280        128

已选择25行。


SQL> SELECT COUNT(1) FROM T_XIFENFEI;

  COUNT(1)
----------
     86048

SQL> shutdown immediate;
数据库已经关闭。
已经卸载数据库。
ORACLE 例程已经关闭。


C:\Windows\system32>dd of=e:/oradata/test/ts_test.dbf  if=/dev/zero bs=1k seek=1419 conv=notrunc count=1
rawwrite dd for windows version 0.6beta3.
Written by John Newbigin <jn@it.swin.edu.au>
This program is covered by terms of the GPL Version 2.

notrunc
1+0 records in
1+0 records out


SQL> startup
ORACLE 例程已经启动。

Total System Global Area 3206836224 bytes
Fixed Size                  2285512 bytes
Variable Size             754974776 bytes
Database Buffers         2432696320 bytes
Redo Buffers               16879616 bytes
数据库装载完毕。
数据库已经打开。
SQL> select count(1) from t_xifenfei;
select count(1) from t_xifenfei
                     *
第 1 行出现错误:
ORA-01578: ORACLE 数据块损坏 (文件号 5, 块号 177)
ORA-01110: 数据文件 5: 'E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF'

跳过坏块重建该表

SQL> alter session set events '10231 trace name context forever, level 10';

会话已更改。

SQL> create table t_xifenfei_bak tablespace ts_test
  2  as select * from t_xifenfei;

表已创建。

SQL> select count(1) from t_xifenfei_bak;

  COUNT(1)
----------
     85968

SQL> drop table t_xifenfei purge;

表已删除。

SQL> rename t_xifenfei_bak to t_xifenfei;

表已重命名。

SQL> select count(1) from t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(1)
----------
     85968

检查坏块情况
通过rman和dbv检查,均表明file 5 block 177为坏块

C:\Users\XFF>dbv file=E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF

DBVERIFY: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on 星期一 8月 8 17:25:57 2022

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - 开始验证: FILE = E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF
页 177 标记为损坏
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x014000b1 (file 5, block 177)
Bad check value found during dbv:
Data in bad block:
 type: 6 format: 2 rdba: 0x014000b1
 last change scn: 0x0000.000ebc27 seq: 0x2 flg: 0x04
 spare1: 0x0 spare2: 0x0 spare3: 0x0
 consistency value in tail: 0xbc270602
 check value in block header: 0x5b2a
 computed block checksum: 0xbb32



DBVERIFY - 验证完成

检查的页总数: 16384
处理的页总数 (数据): 2456
失败的页总数 (数据): 0
处理的页总数 (索引): 0
失败的页总数 (索引): 0
处理的页总数 (其他): 155
处理的总页数 (段)  : 0
失败的总页数 (段)  : 0
空的页总数: 13772
标记为损坏的总页数: 1
流入的页总数: 0
加密的总页数        : 0
最高块 SCN            : 967616 (0.967616)

RMAN> backup validate check logical datafile 5;

启动 backup 于 08-8月 -22
使用目标数据库控制文件替代恢复目录
分配的通道: ORA_DISK_1
通道 ORA_DISK_1: SID=118 设备类型=DISK
通道 ORA_DISK_1: 正在启动全部数据文件备份集
通道 ORA_DISK_1: 正在指定备份集内的数据文件
输入数据文件: 文件号=00005 名称=E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF
通道 ORA_DISK_1: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:00:01
数据文件列表
=================
文件状态 标记为损坏 空块 已检查的块 高 SCN
---- ------ -------------- ------------ --------------- ----------
5    FAILED 0              13744        16384           967621
  文件名: E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF
  块类型 失败的块 已处理的块
  ---------- -------------- ----------------
  数据       1              2457
  索引      0              0
  其他      0              183

验证找到一个或多个损坏的块
有关详细信息, 请参阅跟踪文件 C:\APP\XFF\diag\rdbms\test\test\trace\test_ora_22284.trc
完成 backup 于 08-8月 -22

SQL> select * from v$database_block_corruption ;

     FILE#     BLOCK#     BLOCKS CORRUPTION_CHANGE# CORRUPTIO
---------- ---------- ---------- ------------------ ---------
         5        177          1                  0 CHECKSUM

查询坏块所属对象
没有查询到该坏块所属对象,证明该block为游离块[不属于任何数据对象,是空闲块,但是损坏]

SQL> SELECT OWNER, SEGMENT_NAME, SEGMENT_TYPE, TABLESPACE_NAME, A.PARTITION_NAME
  2    FROM DBA_EXTENTS A
  3   WHERE FILE_ID = &FILE_ID
  4     AND &BLOCK_ID BETWEEN BLOCK_ID AND BLOCK_ID + BLOCKS - 1;
输入 file_id 的值:  5
原值    3:  WHERE FILE_ID = &FILE_ID
新值    3:  WHERE FILE_ID = 5
输入 block_id 的值:  177
原值    4:    AND &BLOCK_ID BETWEEN BLOCK_ID AND BLOCK_ID + BLOCKS - 1
新值    4:    AND 177 BETWEEN BLOCK_ID AND BLOCK_ID + BLOCKS - 1

未选定行

通过Oracle Recovery Tools工具进行修复
20220808173940


再次检查坏块
通过工具修复之后,dbv和rman检查均正常

C:\Users\XFF>rman target /

恢复管理器: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on 星期一 8月 8 17:59:26 2022

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

已连接到目标数据库: TEST (DBID=2410248200)

RMAN> backup validate check logical datafile 5;

启动 backup 于 08-8月 -22
使用目标数据库控制文件替代恢复目录
分配的通道: ORA_DISK_1
通道 ORA_DISK_1: SID=54 设备类型=DISK
通道 ORA_DISK_1: 正在启动全部数据文件备份集
通道 ORA_DISK_1: 正在指定备份集内的数据文件
输入数据文件: 文件号=00005 名称=E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF
通道 ORA_DISK_1: 备份集已完成, 经过时间:00:00:01
数据文件列表
=================
文件状态 标记为损坏 空块 已检查的块 高 SCN
---- ------ -------------- ------------ --------------- ----------
5    OK     0              13745        16384           967621
  文件名: E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF
  块类型 失败的块 已处理的块
  ---------- -------------- ----------------
  数据       0              2456
  索引      0              0
  其他      0              183

完成 backup 于 08-8月 -22


C:\Users\XFF>dbv file=E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF

DBVERIFY: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on 星期一 8月 8 17:56:45 2022

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - 开始验证: FILE = E:\ORADATA\TEST\TS_TEST.DBF


DBVERIFY - 验证完成

检查的页总数: 16384
处理的页总数 (数据): 2456
失败的页总数 (数据): 0
处理的页总数 (索引): 0
失败的页总数 (索引): 0
处理的页总数 (其他): 183
处理的总页数 (段)  : 0
失败的总页数 (段)  : 0
空的页总数: 13745
标记为损坏的总页数: 0
流入的页总数: 0
加密的总页数        : 0
最高块 SCN            : 967621 (0.967621)


SQL> select * from v$database_block_corruption ;

未选定行
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Oracle Recovery Tools 解决ORA-600 3020故障

尝试recover datafile,部分文件报ORA-600 3020,其他文件recover成功

ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 1  
Media Recovery Start
Serial Media Recovery started
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 3 Seq 24972 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\REDO03.LOG
Errors in file d:\app\administrator\diag\rdbms\orcl\orcl\trace\orcl_ora_72232.trc  (incident=749532):
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [3020], [1], [272255], [4466559], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 1, block# 272255, file offset is 2230312960 bytes)
ORA-10564: tablespace SYSTEM
ORA-01110: 数据文件 1: 'D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\SYSTEM01.DBF'
ORA-10561: block type 'TRANSACTION MANAGED DATA BLOCK', data object# 383
Media Recovery failed with error 600
ORA-283 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 1  ...
Tue Aug 02 10:28:24 2022
Trace dumping is performing id=[cdmp_20220802102824]
Tue Aug 02 10:28:31 2022
ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 2  
Media Recovery Start
Serial Media Recovery started
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 3 Seq 24972 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\REDO03.LOG
Errors in file d:\app\administrator\diag\rdbms\orcl\orcl\trace\orcl_ora_72232.trc  (incident=749533):
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [3020], [2], [92323], [8480931], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-10567: Redo is inconsistent with data block (file# 2, block# 92323, file offset is 756310016 bytes)
ORA-10564: tablespace SYSAUX
ORA-01110: 数据文件 2: 'D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\SYSAUX01.DBF'
ORA-10561: block type 'TRANSACTION MANAGED INDEX BLOCK', data object# 12330
Media Recovery failed with error 600
ORA-283 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 2  ...

利用Oracle数据库异常恢复检查脚本(Oracle Database Recovery Check)检查文件头相关信息,发现recover 失败的两个文件异常
20220802163502


通过Oracle Recovery Tools工具进行修复
20220802105543

数据库recover 成功,并顺利open
20220802105622

Tue Aug 02 10:56:13 2022
ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 1  
Media Recovery Start
Serial Media Recovery started
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 3 Seq 24972 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\REDO03.LOG
Completed: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 1  
ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 2  
Media Recovery Start
Serial Media Recovery started
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 3 Seq 24972 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\REDO03.LOG
Completed: ALTER DATABASE RECOVER  datafile 2  
Tue Aug 02 10:56:34 2022
alter database open 
Beginning crash recovery of 1 threads
 parallel recovery started with 7 processes
Started redo scan
Completed redo scan
 read 8504 KB redo, 0 data blocks need recovery
Started redo application at
 Thread 1: logseq 24972, block 2, scn 177712270
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 3 Seq 24972 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\REDO03.LOG
Completed redo application of 0.00MB
Completed crash recovery at
 Thread 1: logseq 24972, block 17011, scn 177734679
 0 data blocks read, 0 data blocks written, 8504 redo k-bytes read
Tue Aug 02 10:56:35 2022
Thread 1 advanced to log sequence 24973 (thread open)
Thread 1 opened at log sequence 24973
  Current log# 1 seq# 24973 mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL\REDO01.LOG
Successful open of redo thread 1
MTTR advisory is disabled because FAST_START_MTTR_TARGET is not set
Tue Aug 02 10:56:35 2022
SMON: enabling cache recovery
Successfully onlined Undo Tablespace 2.
Dictionary check beginning
Tablespace 'TEMP' #3 found in data dictionary,
but not in the controlfile. Adding to controlfile.
Dictionary check complete
Verifying file header compatibility for 11g tablespace encryption..
Verifying 11g file header compatibility for tablespace encryption completed
SMON: enabling tx recovery
*********************************************************************
WARNING: The following temporary tablespaces contain no files.
         This condition can occur when a backup controlfile has
         been restored.  It may be necessary to add files to these
         tablespaces.  That can be done using the SQL statement:
 
         ALTER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ADD TEMPFILE
 
         Alternatively, if these temporary tablespaces are no longer
         needed, then they can be dropped.
           Empty temporary tablespace: TEMP
**********************************************************
WARNING: Files may exists in db_recovery_file_dest
that are not known to the database. Use the RMAN command
CATALOG RECOVERY AREA to re-catalog any such files.
If files cannot be cataloged, then manually delete them
using OS command.
One of the following events caused this:
1. A backup controlfile was restored.
2. A standby controlfile was restored.
3. The controlfile was re-created.
4. db_recovery_file_dest had previously been enabled and
   then disabled.
**********************************************************
replication_dependency_tracking turned off (no async multimaster replication found)
LOGSTDBY: Validating controlfile with logical metadata
LOGSTDBY: Validation complete
Completed: alter database open 

增加tempfile,导出数据该库恢复完成

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又一例ORA-600 kcratr_nab_less_than_odr

数据库启动报错ORA-600 kcratr_nab_less_than_odr

alter database open
Sat Jul 23 21:38:32 2022
Beginning crash recovery of 1 threads
 parallel recovery started with 19 processes
Sat Jul 23 21:38:33 2022
Started redo scan
Sat Jul 23 21:38:33 2022
Completed redo scan
 read 244 KB redo, 64 data blocks need recovery
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_ora_5748.trc  (incident=309845):
ORA-00600: ??????, ??: [kcratr_nab_less_than_odr], [1], [10343], [67442], [67454], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Use ADRCI or Support Workbench to package the incident.
See Note 411.1 at My Oracle Support for error and packaging details.
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:34 2022
Slave encountered ORA-10388 exception during crash recovery
Sat Jul 23 21:38:38 2022
Aborting crash recovery due to error 600
Sat Jul 23 21:38:38 2022
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_ora_5748.trc:
ORA-00600: ??????, ??: [kcratr_nab_less_than_odr], [1], [10343], [67442], [67454], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Sat Jul 23 21:38:39 2022
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_ora_5748.trc:
ORA-00600: ??????, ??: [kcratr_nab_less_than_odr], [1], [10343], [67442], [67454], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
ORA-600 signalled during: alter database open...

这个错误比较简单,参考:
12c启动报kcratr_nab_less_than_odr
ORA-600 kcratr_nab_less_than_odr故障解决
解决该问题之后,数据库启动报ORA-600 4194错误

Mon Jul 25 12:18:04 2022
SMON: enabling tx recovery
Starting background process SMCO
Mon Jul 25 12:18:05 2022
SMCO started with pid=26, OS id=8164 
Mon Jul 25 12:18:06 2022
Database Characterset is ZHS16GBK
ORA-00600: ??????, ??: [4194], [46], [44], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Use ADRCI or Support Workbench to package the incident.
See Note 411.1 at My Oracle Support for error and packaging details.
Mon Jul 25 12:18:14 2022
Doing block recovery for file 5 block 1267
Mon Jul 25 12:18:14 2022
Resuming block recovery (PMON) for file 5 block 1267
Block recovery from logseq 1, block 67 to scn 217083444
Mon Jul 25 12:18:15 2022
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 1 Seq 1 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL12C\REDO01.LOG
Block recovery stopped at EOT rba 1.68.16
Block recovery completed at rba 1.68.16, scn 0.217083444
Doing block recovery for file 5 block 272
Resuming block recovery (PMON) for file 5 block 272
Block recovery from logseq 1, block 67 to scn 217083443
Mon Jul 25 12:18:18 2022
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 1 Seq 1 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL12C\REDO01.LOG
Block recovery completed at rba 1.68.16, scn 0.217083444
Mon Jul 25 12:18:19 2022
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_smon_7100.trc:
ORA-01595: 释放区 (5) 回退段 (10) 时出错
ORA-00600: ??????, ??: [4194], [46], [44], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Mon Jul 25 12:18:19 2022
No Resource Manager plan active
Mon Jul 25 12:18:23 2022
Sweep [inc][317000]: completed
Sweep [inc2][317000]: completed
Starting background process FBDA
Mon Jul 25 12:18:40 2022
FBDA started with pid=28, OS id=7828 
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_ora_5804.trc  (incident=317056):
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [4194], [46], [44], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Use ADRCI or Support Workbench to package the incident.
See Note 411.1 at My Oracle Support for error and packaging details.
Mon Jul 25 12:18:53 2022
Doing block recovery for file 5 block 1267
Resuming block recovery (PMON) for file 5 block 1267
Block recovery from logseq 1, block 67 to scn 217083444
Mon Jul 25 12:18:53 2022
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 1 Seq 1 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL12C\REDO01.LOG
Block recovery completed at rba 1.68.16, scn 0.217083454
Doing block recovery for file 5 block 272
Resuming block recovery (PMON) for file 5 block 272
Block recovery from logseq 1, block 67 to scn 217083454
Mon Jul 25 12:18:54 2022
Recovery of Online Redo Log: Thread 1 Group 1 Seq 1 Reading mem 0
  Mem# 0: D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\ORADATA\ORCL12C\REDO01.LOG
Block recovery completed at rba 1.69.16, scn 0.217083455
Mon Jul 25 12:18:55 2022
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_ora_5804.trc:
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [4194], [46], [44], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Mon Jul 25 12:18:55 2022
Errors in file D:\APP\ADMINISTRATOR\diag\rdbms\orcl12c\orcl12c\trace\orcl12c_ora_5804.trc:
ORA-00600: 内部错误代码, 参数: [4194], [46], [44], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []
Error 600 happened during db open, shutting down database
USER (ospid: 5804): terminating the instance due to error 600
Mon Jul 25 12:19:07 2022
Instance terminated by USER, pid = 5804
ORA-1092 signalled during: alter database open resetlogs...

该错误也比较简单,对异常undo段进行处理即可,参考类似操作:How to resolve ORA-600 [4194] errors

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