分类目录归档:Oracle备份恢复

记录一次oracle现场故障处理经过

近期到现场进行了一个数据库恢复,我在恢复之前该库先由于硬件进行恢复,然后由其他人对其进行了一系列数据库恢复,但是未恢复成功,客户希望我们到现场进行处理(因为网络原因无法远程).接手库之后,处理第一个问题,是客户在进行现场备份的时候(把linux数据拷贝到win的过程中)发现有几个文件拷贝异常,这个错误很可能是由于当初的硬件故障修复之后留下的后遗症(由于io设备错误,无法运行此项请求),通过工具进行拷贝,恢复出来
20210403210131


DUL> copy file from  /oradata2/xifenfeidata.dbf to /oradata2/xifenfeidata.dbf

starting copy datafile '/oradata1/xifenfeidata.dbf' to '/oradata2/xifenfeidata.dbf'
read data error from file '/oradata1/xifenfeidata.dbf'.error message:Input/output error
read block# error: 560171
read data error from file '/oradata1/xifenfeidata.dbf'.error message:Input/output error
read block# error: 560179
datafile copy completed with 2 block error.
[oracle@localhost ~]$ dbv file=/oradata2/xifenfeidata.dbf blocksize=16384

DBVERIFY: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Mon Mar 29 17:28:17 2021

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = /oradata2/xifenfeidata.dbf
Page 560171 is marked corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x3bc88c2b (file 239, block 560171)
Completely zero block found during dbv: 

Page 560179 is marked corrupt
Corrupt block relative dba: 0x3bc88c33 (file 239, block 560179)
Completely zero block found during dbv: 



DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 4194302
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 2230726
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 1936953
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 26618
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 3
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 2
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Total Pages Encrypted        : 0
Highest block SCN            : 304929867 (106.304929867)

修复完相关无法拷贝文件之后,启动数据库报控制文件异常

Mon Mar 29 15:03:38 2021
alter database mount
USER (ospid: 29044): terminating the instance
Mon Mar 29 15:03:42 2021
System state dump requested by (instance=1, osid=29044), summary=[abnormal instance termination].
System State dumped to trace file /u01/app/oracle/diag/rdbms/xff/xff/trace/xff_diag_28961.trc
Instance terminated by USER, pid = 29044

尝试重建ctl

[oracle@localhost ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Mon Mar 29 17:40:17 2021

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup nomount pfile='/tmp/pfile'
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1.7704E+10 bytes
Fixed Size                  2235568 bytes
Variable Size            2348811088 bytes
Database Buffers         1.5301E+10 bytes
Redo Buffers               52580352 bytes
SQL> @/tmp/ctl.sql
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE xff NORESETLOGS  NOARCHIVELOG
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01503: CREATE CONTROLFILE failed
ORA-01189: file is from a different RESETLOGS than previous files
ORA-01110: data file 249: '/oradata/xff/system03.dbf'

初步判断是由于对方之前恢复导致部分文件resetlogs scn异常,通过bbed进行判断确认

BBED> set file 1
        FILE#           1

BBED> p kcvfhrls
struct kcvfhrls, 8 bytes                    @116     
   ub4 kscnbas                              @116      0x00000001
   ub2 kscnwrp                              @120      0x0000

BBED> set file 249
        FILE#           249

BBED> p kcvfhrls
struct kcvfhrls, 8 bytes                    @116     
   ub4 kscnbas                              @116      0x00000001
   ub2 kscnwrp                              @120      0x0000

通过bbed修改相关值,然后重建控制文件成功,尝试resetlogs库,报ORA-01248错误

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;
alter database open resetlogs
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01248: file 234 was created in the future of incomplete recovery
ORA-01110: data file 234: '/oradata1/xifenfeidata5.DBF'

关于ORA-01248的错误解释

01248, 00000, "file %s was created in the future of incomplete recovery"
// *Cause:  Attempting to do a RESETLOGS open with a file entry in the
//          control file that was originally created after the UNTIL time 
//          of the incomplete recovery.
//          Allowing such an entry may hide the version of the file that 
//          is needed at this time.  The file number may be in use for 
//          a different file which would be lost if the RESETLOGS was allowed.
// *Action: If more recovery is desired then apply redo until the creation
//          time of the file is reached. If the file is not wanted and the
//          same file number is not in use at the stop time of the recovery,
//          then the file can be taken offline with the FOR DROP option.
//          Otherwise a different control file is needed to allow the RESETLOGS.
//          Another backup can be restored and recovered, or a control file can
//          be created via CREATE CONTROLFILE.

大概的意思是文件的创建时间大于文件当前的scn,通过查询确实如此

SQL> select file#,CREATION_CHANGE#,CREATION_TIME from v$datafile_header where file#=234;

           FILE# CREATION_CHANGE# CREATION_
---------------- ---------------- ---------
             234     419298664864 02-AUG-19

SQL> SELECT status,  
  2  to_char(checkpoint_change#,'9999999999999999') "SCN",
  3  to_char(checkpoint_time,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss') checkpoint_time,FUZZY,
  4  count(*) ROW_NUM
  5  FROM v$datafile_header
  6  GROUP BY status, checkpoint_change#, to_char(checkpoint_time,'yyyy-mm-dd hh24:mi:ss'),fuzzy
  7  ORDER BY status, checkpoint_change#, checkpoint_time;

STATUS  SCN               CHECKPOINT_TIME     FUZ          ROW_NUM
------- ----------------- ------------------- --- ----------------
ONLINE       417750848223 2021-02-23 23:50:46 YES                7
ONLINE       417750848223 2021-03-21 11:44:25 NO               396

通过对部分scn进行修改(比如减小创建时间的scn),然后尝试resetlogs库

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;
alter database open resetlogs
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01092: ORACLE instance terminated. Disconnection forced
ORA-00704: bootstrap process failure
ORA-00704: bootstrap process failure
ORA-00604: error occurred at recursive SQL level 1
ORA-01555: snapshot too old: rollback segment number 5 with name
"_SYSSMU5_2708889888$" too small
Process ID: 3182
Session ID: 1 Serial number: 3

这个错误比较简单,参考以前的部分文章:在数据库open过程中常遇到ORA-01555汇总数据库open过程遭遇ORA-1555对应sql语句补充,处理之后,数据库open成功

SQL> startup mount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 1.7704E+10 bytes
Fixed Size                  2235568 bytes
Variable Size            2348811088 bytes
Database Buffers         1.5301E+10 bytes
Redo Buffers               52580352 bytes
Database mounted.
SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

本次数据库恢复基本上完成,已经最大限度恢复数据,导出数据到新库,完成恢复任务

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ORA-600 16703直接把orachk备份表插入到tab$恢复

有一个朋友和我说,他们数据库出现了以下错误ORA-600 16703 错误
20210324195416


他们是在虚拟化环境中,可以恢复到上一个快照点,但是主机启动之后,数据库依旧异常,让我们进行处理

C:\Users\Administrator>sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Wed Mar 24 17:04:01 2021

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;

OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE

SQL> select count(1) from tab$;

  COUNT(1)
----------
         0

很明显tab$已经被清空,数据库无法正常使用.因为库没有crash,尝试把备份的orachk表插入进来

SQL> insert into tab$ select * from ORACHKB514061BDCB10EBA9CF58F3;

6318 rows created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> select 'DROP TRIGGER '||owner||'."'||TRIGGER_NAME||'";' from dba_triggers w
here TRIGGER_NAME like 'DBMS_%_INTERNAL% '
  2  union all
  3  select 'DROP PROCEDURE '||owner||'."'||a.object_name||'";' from dba_procedu
res a where a.object_name like 'DBMS_%_INTERNAL% '
  4  union all
  5  select 'drop '||object_type||' '||owner||'.'||object_name||';' from dba_obj
ects where object_name in('DBMS_SUPPORT_DBMONITOR','DBMS_SUPPORT_DBMONITORP');

'DROPTRIGGER'||OWNER||'."'||TRIGGER_NAME||'";'
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

drop PROCEDURE SYS.DBMS_SUPPORT_DBMONITORP;
drop TRIGGER SYS.DBMS_SUPPORT_DBMONITOR;

SQL> drop PROCEDURE SYS.DBMS_SUPPORT_DBMONITORP;

Procedure dropped.

SQL> drop TRIGGER SYS.DBMS_SUPPORT_DBMONITOR;

Trigger dropped.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL>

重启数据库,该故障恢复完成,数据完美恢复0丢失.

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oracle dul 12.2正式版发布

oracle官方dul 正式发布 12.2版本(在上次的测试中dul 12.2完美支持Oracle 19c恢复还是beta版本)

[root@iZbp1hx0enix3hix1kvyrxZ tmp]# ./dul      

Data UnLoader: 12.2.0.0.1 - Internal Only - on Sun Mar 21 13:55:39 2021
with 64-bit io functions and the decompression option

Copyright (c) 1994 2021 Bernard van Duijnen All rights reserved.

 Strictly Oracle Internal Use Only
DUL> show parameters;
_SLPE_DEBUG               = FALSE
ALLOW_CHECKSUM_MISMATCH   = FALSE
ALLOW_DBA_MISMATCH        = FALSE
ALLOW_OTHER_OBJNO         = FALSE
ALLOW_TRAILER_MISMATCH    = FALSE
ALLOW_ZERO_IN_DATE_COLUMNS = FALSE
ASM_DO_HARD_CHECKS        = TRUE
AUTO_UPDATE_CHECKSUM      = TRUE
AUTO_UPDATE_TRAILER       = TRUE
BUFFER                    = 104857600
CF_FILES                  = 1022
CF_TABLESPACES            = 64
COMPATIBLE                = 11
CONTROL_FILE              = control.txt
DB_BLOCK_SIZE             = 8192
DB_NAME                   = 
DB_ID                     = 0
DC_COLUMNS                = 2000000
DC_LOB_ENTRIES            = 327680
DC_EXTENTS                = 10000
DC_OBJECTS                = 1000000
DC_SEGMENTS               = 100000
DC_TABLES                 = 10000
DC_USERS                  = 400
DEFAULT_CHARACTER_SET     = 
DEFAULT_NATIONAL_CHARACTER_SET = 
EXPORT_MODE               = true
FEEDBACK                  = 10000
FILE                      = 
FILE_SIZE_IN_MB           = 0
LDR_ENCLOSE_CHAR          = |
LDR_OUTPUT_IN_UTF8        = FALSE
LDR_PHYS_REC_SIZE         = 0
LOGFILE                   = dul.log
MAX_OPEN_FILES            = 8
MAX_SCAN_ROWS             = 0
MAX_SAMPLE_ROWS           = 5
OSD_MAX_THREADS           = 1055
OSD_BIG_ENDIAN_FLAG       = false
OSD_DBA_FILE_BITS         = 10
OSD_FILE_LEADER_SIZE      = 0
OSD_C_STRUCT_ALIGNMENT    = 32
OSD_WORD_SIZE             = 32
PARSE_HEX_ESCAPES         = FALSE
RESET_LOGFILE             = FALSE
SCAN_DATABASE_SCANS_LOB_SEGMENTS = TRUE
SCAN_STEP_SIZE            = 512
TRACE_FLAGS               = 0
UNEXP_MAX_ERRORS          = 1000
UNEXP_VERBOSE             = FALSE
USE_LOB_FILES             = FALSE
USE_SCANNED_EXTENT_MAP    = FALSE
VERIFY_NUMBER_PRECISION   = TRUE
WARN_RECREATE_FILES       = TRUE
WRITABLE_DATAFILES        = FALSE
DUL> exit

Life is DUL without it
[root@iZbp1hx0enix3hix1kvyrxZ tmp]# 
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