分类目录归档:Oracle 监听

ORA-01034 ORA-27101故障分析

客户的数据库通过监听访问报ORA-01034 ORA-27101错误无法正常使用:

SQL> conn app/xxxxx@192.168.129.145/orcl
ERROR:
ORA-01034: ORACLE not available
ORA-27101: shared memory realm does not exist
Linux-x86_64 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Process ID: 0
Session ID: 0 Serial number: 0

SQL>  conn  app/xxxxx
Connected.

检查数据库状态和tnsping都正常

SQL> select open_mode from v$database;

OPEN_MODE
--------------------
READ WRITE

SQL> !tnsping orcl

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on 18-OCT-2020 22:11:49

Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.129.1)
(PORT = 1521))) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVICE_NAME = orcl)))
OK (0 msec)

检查主机之间ping操作也正常:

[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$
[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$ ping 192.168.129.1
PING 192.168.129.1 (192.168.129.1) 56(84) bytes of data.
64 bytes from 192.168.129.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.025 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.129.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.032 ms
64 bytes from 192.168.129.1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.034 ms
^C
--- 192.168.129.1 ping statistics ---
3 packets transmitted, 3 received, 0% packet loss, time 2318ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.025/0.030/0.034/0.006 ms

检查数据库和监听配置:

[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Sun Oct 18 22:13:50 2020

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show parameter name;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
cell_offloadgroup_name               string
db_file_name_convert                 string
db_name                              string      orcl
db_unique_name                       string      orcl
global_names                         boolean     FALSE
instance_name                        string      oracle
lock_name_space                      string
log_file_name_convert                string
processor_group_name                 string
service_names                        string      orcl
SQL>
SQL>
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on 18-OCT-2020 22:15:16

Copyright (c) 1991, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
Start Date                18-OCT-2020 22:05:04
Uptime                    0 days 0 hr. 10 min. 12 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /usr/local/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /usr/local/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/DB1/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=192.168.129.1)(PORT=1521)))
Services Summary...
Service "PLSExtProc" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "PLSExtProc", status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "orcl" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "orcl", status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$ cat /usr/local/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora
# listener.ora Network Configuration File: /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/network/admin/listener.ora

# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.


SID_LIST_LISTENER =
  (SID_LIST =
   (SID_DESC =
      (SID_NAME = orcl)
      (ORACLE_HOME = /usr/local/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
      (GLOBAL_DBNAME= orcl)
    )
    (SID_DESC =
      (SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
      (ORACLE_HOME = /usr/local/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1)
      (PROGRAM = extproc)
    )
  )

LISTENER =

 (DESCRIPTION_LIST =

   (DESCRIPTION =

    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)  (KEY = EXTPROC1521))

    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP) (HOST = 192.168.129.1) (PORT = 1521))

   )

 )



ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /usr/local/oracle
[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$
[XIFENFEI@DB1 trace]$

这里看到数据库配置和监听配置不匹配,因此需要调整。

[XIFENFEI@DB1 admin]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Sun Oct 18 22:21:16 2020

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options


SQL> conn app/xxxxx@192.168.129.145/orcl
Connected.
SQL>
SQL>
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options
[XIFENFEI@DB1 admin]$
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利用VNCR修复CVE-2012-1675漏洞

随着对安全的重视,TNS Listener远程数据投毒漏洞(CVE-2012-1675)被很多单位要求进行整改,而且级别是高危
1


如果是11.2.0.4之前版本,特别是在rac环境中,如果要整改该问题相对比较麻烦,需要通过配置Oracle wallet来实现,配置比较复杂,而且还要重启实例,影响比较大,具体参考:Using Class of Secure Transport (COST) to Restrict Instance Registration in Oracle RAC (Doc ID 1340831.1),对于单机环境直接参考以前文章:Oracle Database Server ‘TNS Listener’远程数据投毒漏洞(CVE-2012-1675)的解决方案.从11.2.0.4开始Oracle引入了Valid Node Checking For Registration (VNCR)新特性,可以通过简单的配置即可完成该漏洞修复
在listener.ora文件中增加(grid/oracle用户)

VALID_NODE_CHECKING_REGISTRATION_LISTENER=ON
VALID_NODE_CHECKING_REGISTRATION_LISTENER_SCAN1=ON
REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES_LISTENER_SCAN1=(hisdb1,hisdb2)

重启监听

LSNRCTL>set current_listener listener_name
LSNRCTL>stop
LSNRCTL>start

验证是否生效
1.在远程机器尝试远程注册

alter system set remote_listener='(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=192.168.115.15)(PORT=1521))' scope=memory;

2.观察监听日志
VNCR


类似这样证明已经生效.

补充说明

VALID_NODE_CHECKING_REGISTRATION_listener_name
Values:

OFF/0 - Disable VNCR//禁用VNCR,此功能不会对注册过来的service进行check;

ON/1/LOCAL - The default. Enable VNCR. All local machine IPs can register.
启用VNCR,默认只允许本机的所有IP的服务注册到本监听,可通过REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES参数添加其他有必要的服务器;

SUBNET/2 - All machines in the subnet are allowed registration.//指定子网内的服务器可以注册过来


REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES_listener-name 
控制允许链接过来的节点,可以通过IP地址/主机名/网段来指定

Values are valid IPs, valid hosts, a subnet using CIDR notation (for ip4/6), or wildcard (*) for ipv4. 
For example:REGISTRATION_INVITED_NODES_Listener=(net-vm1, 127.98.45.209, 127.42.5.*)

Note 
that when an INVITED list is set, it will automatically include the 
machine's local IP in the list. There is no need to include it.

--11.2.0.4和12c不一样之处
在12.1 RAC数据库上,listener的参数VALID_NODE_CHECKING_REGISTRATION_listener_name默认设置为SUBNET / 2,
即子网中的所有计算机都允许注册.所以12c默认不能解决CVE-2012-1675漏洞

参考文档
Valid Node Checking For Registration (VNCR) (Doc ID 1600630.1)
How to Enable VNCR on RAC Database to Register only Local Instances (Doc ID 1914282.1)

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Oracle Database Server ‘TNS Listener’远程数据投毒漏洞(CVE-2012-1675)的解决方案

根据oracle mos官方描述,该问题需要打patch和配置同步进行,这篇主要提供单机Oracle Database Server ‘TNS Listener’远程数据投毒漏洞(CVE-2012-1675)的解决方案,参考文档Using Class of Secure Transport (COST) to Restrict Instance Registration (Doc ID 1453883.1),因为文档本身描述比较繁琐,这里对其进行简单总结:
数据库版本要求
包含12880299补丁,最低版本要求(高于以下版本即可)
12880299


通过$ORACL_HOME/OPatch/opatch lsinventory 命令获取版本信息,大于等于上述文档版本即可,具体版本对应关系参考:数据库补丁对应关系
listener.ora文件配置

LISTENER =
  (DESCRIPTION_LIST =
    (DESCRIPTION =
      (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = localhost.localdomain)(PORT = 1521))
     # (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC1521))  --注释掉,一般不会使用ipc,绝大部分应用使用tcp连接数据库
    )
  )

ADR_BASE_LISTENER = /home/u01/app/oracle
SECURE_REGISTER_LISTENER = (TCP)  --增加该参数

重启监听

lsnrctl stop
lsnrctl start

验证配置生效

1.查看数据库监听日志
$ORACLE_BASE/diag/tnslsnr/主机名/listener/trace/listener.log

2.在局域网中找一台数据库服务器(单机环境),登录数据库
Sqlplus / as sysdba
Show parameter remote_listener;--记录该值(一般是空)
alter system set remote_listener='(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=ip)(PORT=1521))' scope=memory;
IP为修改为上述监听的数据库服务器地址

3.再次查看监听日志,会发现类似记录(亦可在数据库中之执行alter system register观察)
02-NOV-2018 20:37:53 * service_register_NSGR * 1194
TNS-01194: The listener command did not arrive in a secure transport
02-NOV-2018 20:37:56 * service_register_NSGR * 1194
TNS-01194: The listener command did not arrive in a secure transport
观察一会儿,表明我们的监听配置生效,数据库拒绝远程监听,修复该漏洞.
如果没有出现类似记录,请核查数据库版本补丁是否满足要求,listener.ora参数配置是否正确

4.还原remote_listener参数以前值
sqlplus / as sysdba
alter system set remote_listener='2中查询记录的值' scope=memory;

对于rac环境,配置比较复杂,参考mos文档:Using Class of Secure Transport (COST) to Restrict Instance Registration in Oracle RAC (Doc ID 1340831.1)

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