在linux上安装PostgreSQL 9.4并启动和关闭数据库

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标题:在linux上安装PostgreSQL 9.4并启动和关闭数据库

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

PostgreSQL是以加州大学伯克利分校计算机系开发的 POSTGRES, Version 4.2为基础的对象关系型数据库管理系统(ORDBMS)。POSTGRES开创的许多概念在很久以后才出现在商业数据库中。PostgreSQL是最初伯克利代码的一个开放源码的继承者。它支持大部分SQL标准并且提供了许多其它现代特性:
复杂查询
外键
触发器
可更新的视图
事务完整性
多版本并发控制

另外,PostgreSQL可以用许多方法进行扩展,比如通过增加新的:
数据类型
函数
操作符
聚合函数
索引方法
过程语言
在个人看来,在开源数据库中PostgreSQL 是和ORACLE最相近的一个,和ORACLE兼容性较好,如果去IOE,该数据库是一个不错的选择

操作系统版本

[root@web103 ~]# more /etc/issue
CentOS release 5.9 (Final)
Kernel \r on an \m
[root@web103 ~]# uname -a
Linux web103 2.6.18-348.el5 #1 SMP Tue Jan 8 17:53:53 EST 2013 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

下载对应PostgreSQL对应rpm包
因为操作系统版本为CentOS 5.9的64位Linux,因此下载对应版本prm包,主要下载了server,client,contrib,libs四个包

[root@web103 ~]# mkdir pg
[root@web103 ~]# cd pg
[root@web103 pg]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
--2015-06-16 20:44:52--  http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
Resolving yum.postgresql.org... 174.143.35.196, 2001:4800:1501:1::196
Connecting to yum.postgresql.org|174.143.35.196|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 1807607 (1.7M) [application/x-redhat-package-manager]
Saving to: `postgresql94-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm'

100%[===================================================================================================================>] 1,807,607   73.6K/s   in 30s     

2015-06-16 20:45:24 (58.1 KB/s) - `postgresql94-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm' saved [1807607/1807607]

[root@web103 pg]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-server-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
--2015-06-16 20:45:35--  http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-server-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
Resolving yum.postgresql.org... 174.143.35.196, 2001:4800:1501:1::196
Connecting to yum.postgresql.org|174.143.35.196|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 6175991 (5.9M) [application/x-redhat-package-manager]
Saving to: `postgresql94-server-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm'

100%[===================================================================================================================>] 6,175,991   58.5K/s   in 2m 4s   

2015-06-16 20:47:42 (48.6 KB/s) - `postgresql94-server-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm' saved [6175991/6175991]

[root@web103 pg]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-contrib-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
--2015-06-16 20:47:51--  http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-contrib-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
Resolving yum.postgresql.org... 174.143.35.196, 2001:4800:1501:1::196
Connecting to yum.postgresql.org|174.143.35.196|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 664051 (648K) [application/x-redhat-package-manager]
Saving to: `postgresql94-contrib-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm'

100%[===================================================================================================================>] 664,051     28.1K/s   in 53s     

2015-06-16 20:48:46 (12.3 KB/s) - `postgresql94-contrib-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm' saved [664051/664051]

[root@web103 pg]# wget http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-libs-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
--2015-06-16 20:51:10--  http://yum.postgresql.org/9.4/redhat/rhel-5-x86_64/postgresql94-libs-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
Resolving yum.postgresql.org... 174.143.35.196, 2001:4800:1501:1::196
Connecting to yum.postgresql.org|174.143.35.196|:80... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 233206 (228K) [application/x-redhat-package-manager]
Saving to: `postgresql94-libs-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm'

100%[===================================================================================================================>] 233,206     70.3K/s   in 3.2s    

2015-06-16 20:51:16 (70.3 KB/s) - `postgresql94-libs-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm' saved [233206/233206]

[root@web103 pg]# ls
postgresql94-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm          postgresql94-libs-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm
postgresql94-contrib-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm  postgresql94-server-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm

安装PostgreSQL rpm包

[root@web103 pg]# rpm -ivh *.rpm
warning: postgresql94-9.4.4-1PGDG.rhel5.x86_64.rpm: Header V3 DSA signature: NOKEY, key ID 442df0f8
Preparing...                ########################################### [100%]
   1:postgresql94-libs      ########################################### [ 25%]
   2:postgresql94           ########################################### [ 50%]
   3:postgresql94-contrib   ########################################### [ 75%]
   4:postgresql94-server    ########################################### [100%]

创建PostgreSQL 默认库

[root@web103 pg]# service postgresql-9.4 initdb
Initializing database: [  OK  ]
[root@web103 data]# pwd
/var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data
[root@web103 data]# ls -ltr
total 120
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 21265 Jun 16 20:52 postgresql.conf
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres    88 Jun 16 20:52 postgresql.auto.conf
drwx------ 3 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_xlog
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres     4 Jun 16 20:52 PG_VERSION
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_twophase
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_tblspc
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_subtrans
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_snapshots
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_serial
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_replslot
drwx------ 4 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_multixact
drwx------ 4 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_logical
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  1636 Jun 16 20:52 pg_ident.conf
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres  4224 Jun 16 20:52 pg_hba.conf
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_dynshmem
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 pg_clog
drwx------ 5 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 20:52 base
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 21:16 pg_log
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 21:16 global
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres    80 Jun 16 21:39 postmaster.pid
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres    59 Jun 16 21:39 postmaster.opts
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 21:39 pg_stat
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 21:39 pg_notify
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres  4096 Jun 16 22:00 pg_stat_tmp

另外还可以通过如下两种方式创建

initdb -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data
pg_ctl -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data

设置PostgreSQL 开机自动启动

[root@web103 pg]# chkconfig postgresql-9.4 on
[root@web103 pg]# chkconfig --list|grep post
postgresql-9.4  0:off   1:off   2:on    3:on    4:on    5:on    6:off

查看默认创建PostgreSQL 用户

[root@web103 data]# more /etc/passwd|grep post
postgres:x:26:26:PostgreSQL Server:/var/lib/pgsql:/bin/bash

增加PATH环境变量

-bash-3.2$echo "PATH=$PATH:/usr/pgsql-9.4/bin;export PATH" >>~/.bash_profile

启动PostgreSQL 数据库

--方法1
-bash-3.2$ postgres -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data
----或者
-bash-3.2$ postgres -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data >~/pg.log 2>&1 &

方法2
pg_ctl start -l ~/pg.log -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data

这里如果在环境变量中配置了PGDATA,那-D也可以不指定,-l为指定日志目录,建议使用封装的方法2启动pg

查看PostgreSQL进程信息

[root@web103 data]# ps -ef|grep post|grep -v grep
postgres  4432     1  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 /usr/pgsql-9.4/bin/postgres -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data
postgres  4433  4432  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 postgres: logger process       
postgres  4435  4432  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 postgres: checkpointer process   
postgres  4436  4432  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 postgres: writer process          
postgres  4437  4432  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 postgres: wal writer process     
postgres  4438  4432  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 postgres: autovacuum launcher process  
postgres  4439  4432  0 21:39 ?        00:00:00 postgres: stats collector process 

这里可以看到pg也和oracle有几分类似,有日志进程,checkpoint进程,有写进程等(具体以后分析)

停止PostgreSQL数据库

-bash-3.2$ pg_ctl stop -D /var/lib/pgsql/9.4/data
waiting for server to shut down.... done
server stopped
-bash-3.2$  ps -ef|grep post|grep -v grep
root      6036   499  0 22:07 pts/0    00:00:00 su - postgres
postgres  6037  6036  0 22:07 pts/0    00:00:00 -bash
postgres  6113  6037  0 22:08 pts/0    00:00:00 ps -ef

PostgreSQL默认监听端口
在后续章节中进一步讲解相关配置和访问

[root@web103 pgsql]# netstat -natp|grep postgres
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:5432              0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN      4432/postgres
此条目发表在 PostgreSQL 分类目录。将固定链接加入收藏夹。

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