月归档:九月 2016

dul无法加载bootstrap实现unload table/user恢复

最近有朋友误操作引起了非常大的事故,差点吃了官司.在做数据库迁移的时候,远程误操作删除了原库的system等几个数据库初始安装的文件,而且该磁盘空间使用率非常高,还有少量写入.最后结果比较悲剧,通过文件系统层面无法直接恢复出来数据文件,而且该库无任何有效备份,又没有表名,列名等信息,无奈之下只能通过底层io block重组来恢复数据文件,可是悲剧又一次发生,这个磁盘上以前也有一份system等文件,最后经过多方重组恢复出来一份相对理想的数据文件.但是第三方公司通过这样重组出来的数据文件和未被删除的业务文件恢复出来的数据大量有问题,依旧需要我们进一步分析恢复处理.这篇文章主要描述了dul在无法加载bootstrap命令之后通过一些方法依旧可以正常使用unload table/user 等命令实现数据尽可能恢复.你要知道几百张表没有表名/列名要把他们区分出来那是什么样的工作量……
在dul中配置system文件

D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf

D:\TEMP\recover\dul\bak>dul

Data UnLoader: 11.2.0.0.4 - Internal Only - on Wed Sep 28 17:01:56 2016
with 64-bit io functions

Copyright (c) 1994 2016 Bernard van Duijnen All rights reserved.

 Strictly Oracle Internal Use Only


DUL> show datafiles;
Sorry, no valid data files found in control.txt

使用默认的dul中数据文件配置方法,让dul自己发现数据文件方法不可行

随意表空间号和文件号dul识别

0 0 D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf

D:\TEMP\recover\dul\bak>dul

Data UnLoader: 11.2.0.0.4 - Internal Only - on Wed Sep 28 17:00:27 2016
with 64-bit io functions

Copyright (c) 1994 2016 Bernard van Duijnen All rights reserved.

 Strictly Oracle Internal Use Only



DUL: Warning: File Type mismatch 1 != 8
DUL: Warning: D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf Header tablespace number 3
!= 0
DUL: Warning: D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf Header relative file number 1 != 0
Found db_id = 2948357999
Found db_name = XIFENFEI
DUL: Warning: Found mismatch while checking file D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf
DUL: Warning: DUL osd_parameter or control.dul configuration error
DUL: Warning: Given file number(0) in control file does not match file# in dba(1)

通过这个识别我们可以知道system的表空间号为3,文件号为1

再次配置system让dul识别

3 1 D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf
D:\TEMP\recover\dul\bak>dul

Data UnLoader: 11.2.0.0.4 - Internal Only - on Wed Sep 28 17:03:46 2016
with 64-bit io functions

Copyright (c) 1994 2016 Bernard van Duijnen All rights reserved.

 Strictly Oracle Internal Use Only



DUL: Warning: File Type mismatch 1 != 8
Found db_id = 2948357999
Found db_name = XIFENFEI
DUL> show datafiles;
ts# rf# start   blocks offs open  err file name
  3   1     0   320257    0    1    0 D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf

dul正常识别出来system文件但是根据经验我们知道tablespace 3肯定是有问题的,因此后续操作依旧问题非常多

尝试dul bootstrap恢复失败

DUL> bootstrap;
Scanning SYSTEM tablespace to locate compatibility segment ...
DUL: Warning: No files found for tablespace 0
Reading EXT.dat 0 entries loaded and sorted 0 entries
Reading SEG.dat 0 entries loaded
Reading COMPATSEG.dat 0 entries loaded
Reading SCANNEDLOBPAGE.dat 0 entries loaded and sorted 0 entries
DUL: Error: No compatibility segments found

由于表空间号错误,dul无法加载到bootstrap$表,另外根据bbed分析恢复出来的system文件中bootstrap$这部分丢失

尝试人工加载dul所需数据字典

DUL> unload table OBJ$ 
  2     storage ( tablespace 3 segobjno 18 file 1 block 240);
. unloading table                      OBJ$   79074 rows unloaded

DUL> unload table TAB$( OBJ# number, DATAOBJ# number,
  2      cluster  C_OBJ#(OBJ#)
  3      storage ( tablespace 3 segobjno 2 tabno 1 file 1 block 144);
. unloading table                      TAB$    4482 rows unloaded

DUL> unload table COL$ ( OBJ# number, COL# number , SEGCOL# number,
  2      cluster C_OBJ#(OBJ#)
  3      storage ( tablespace 3 segobjno 2 tabno 5 file 1 block 144);
. unloading table                      COL$  114491 rows unloaded

DUL> unload table USER$
  2      cluster C_USER#(USER#)
  3      storage ( tablespace 3 segobjno 10 tabno 1 file 1 block 208);
. unloading table                     USER$      96 rows unloaded

----其他表省略,根据需要的依次处理

尝试使用dul恢复数据

DUL> desc portal_emr.BASEELEMENT;
Table PORTAL_EMR.BASEELEMENT
obj#= 87200, dataobj#= 87200, ts#= 9, file#= 7, block#=458
      tab#= 0, segcols= 8, clucols= 0
Column information:
icol# 01 segcol# 01       BENAME len   30 type  1 VARCHAR2 cs 852(ZHS16GBK)
icol# 02 segcol# 02     TYPENAME len   30 type  1 VARCHAR2 cs 852(ZHS16GBK)
icol# 03 segcol# 03     TYPETYPE len   22 type  2 NUMBER(0,0)
icol# 04 segcol# 04    BEXMLTEXT len 4000 type  1 VARCHAR2 cs 852(ZHS16GBK)
icol# 05 segcol# 05 DEPTGROUPCODE len   30 type  1 VARCHAR2 cs 852(ZHS16GBK)
icol# 06 segcol# 06     ISCOMMON len   22 type  2 NUMBER(0,0)
icol# 07 segcol# 07      BESPELL len   15 type  1 VARCHAR2 cs 852(ZHS16GBK)
icol# 08 segcol# 08     ELEMTYPE len   22 type  2 NUMBER(0)

DUL> show datafiles;
ts# rf# start   blocks offs open  err file name
  3   1     0   320257    0    1    0 D:\xifenfei\system01.dbf
  9   7     0  4170425    0    1    0 D:\BaiduYunDownload\PORTAL_EMR

DUL> unload table portal_emr.BASEELEMENT;
. unloading table               BASEELEMENT    1913 rows unloaded

这里描述了在dul无法加载bootstrap命令之后,通过人工加载数据字典实现正常的unload table/user功能,丢弃了一般处理思路中的只能通过scan 然后unload没有表名,列名的处理方法,从而实现了恢复的最大化.
我们对原厂官方oracle dual工具有深入研究,如果在oracle dul恢复方面有搞不定的问题.
请联系我们,提供专业ORACLE数据库恢复技术支持
Phone:13429648788    Q Q:107644445QQ咨询惜分飞    E-Mail:dba@xifenfei.com

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通过kfed说明asm disk header定义

kfed读取数据磁盘头主要参数解释说明

   % kfed read /dev/raw/raw1
     
   kfbh.endian:                          1 ; 0x000: 0x01
   kfbh.hard:                          130 ; 0x001: 0x82
   kfbh.type:                            1 ; 0x002: KFBTYP_DISKHEAD
   kfbh.datfmt:                          1 ; 0x003: 0x01
   kfbh.block.blk:                       0 ; 0x004: T=0 NUMB=0x0
   kfbh.block.obj:              2147483648 ; 0x008: TYPE=0x8 NUMB=0x0
   kfbh.check:                  2932902794 ; 0x00c: 0xaed08b8a
   kfbh.fcn.base:                        0 ; 0x010: 0x00000000
   kfbh.fcn.wrap:                        0 ; 0x014: 0x00000000
   kfbh.spare1:                          0 ; 0x018: 0x00000000
   kfbh.spare2:                          0 ; 0x01c: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.driver.provstr:         ORCLDISK ; 0x000: length=8
   kfdhdb.driver.reserved[0]:            0 ; 0x008: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.driver.reserved[1]:            0 ; 0x00c: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.driver.reserved[2]:            0 ; 0x010: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.driver.reserved[3]:            0 ; 0x014: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.driver.reserved[4]:            0 ; 0x018: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.driver.reserved[5]:            0 ; 0x01c: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.compat:                168820736 ; 0x020: 0x0a100000
   kfdhdb.dsknum:                        0 ; 0x024: 0x0000
   kfdhdb.grptyp:                        1 ; 0x026: KFDGTP_EXTERNAL
   kfdhdb.hdrsts:                        3 ; 0x027: KFDHDR_MEMBER
   kfdhdb.dskname:              ASM01_0000 ; 0x028: length=10
   kfdhdb.grpname:                   ASM01 ; 0x048: length=5
   kfdhdb.fgname:               ASM01_0000 ; 0x068: length=10
   kfdhdb.capname:                         ; 0x088: length=0
   kfdhdb.crestmp.hi:             32837774 ; 0x0a8: HOUR=0xe DAYS=0x4 MNTH=0x4 YEAR=0x7d4
   kfdhdb.crestmp.lo:           1555722240 ; 0x0ac: USEC=0x0 MSEC=0x29c SECS=0xb MINS=0x17
   kfdhdb.mntstmp.hi:             32837774 ; 0x0b0: HOUR=0xe DAYS=0x4 MNTH=0x4 YEAR=0x7d4
   kfdhdb.mntstmp.lo:           1563864064 ; 0x0b4: USEC=0x0 MSEC=0x1ab SECS=0x13 MINS=0x17
   kfdhdb.secsize:                     512 ; 0x0b8: 0x0200
   kfdhdb.blksize:                    4096 ; 0x0ba: 0x1000
   kfdhdb.ausize:                  1048576 ; 0x0bc: 0x00100000
   kfdhdb.mfact:                    113792 ; 0x0c0: 0x0001bc80
   kfdhdb.dsksize:                    9075 ; 0x0c4: 0x00002373
   kfdhdb.pmcnt:                         2 ; 0x0c8: 0x00000002
   kfdhdb.fstlocn:                       1 ; 0x0cc: 0x00000001
   kfdhdb.altlocn:                       2 ; 0x0d0: 0x00000002
   kfdhdb.f1b1locn:                      2 ; 0x0d4: 0x00000002
   kfdhdb.redomirrors[0]:                0 ; 0x0d8: 0x0000
   kfdhdb.redomirrors[1]:                0 ; 0x0da: 0x0000
   kfdhdb.redomirrors[2]:                0 ; 0x0dc: 0x0000
   kfdhdb.redomirrors[3]:                0 ; 0x0de: 0x0000
   kfdhdb.ub4spare[0]:                   0 ; 0x0e0: 0x00000000
   ...
   kfdhdb.ub4spare[60]:                  0 ; 0x1d0: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.acdb.aba.seq:                  0 ; 0x1d4: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.acdb.aba.blk:                  0 ; 0x1d8: 0x00000000
   kfdhdb.acdb.ents:                     0 ; 0x1dc: 0x0000
   kfdhdb.acdb.ub2spare:                 0 ; 0x1de: 0x0000
 
  Breakdown:

   kfbh.endian  
     kf3.h   /* endianness of writer */ 
       Little endian = 1  
       Big endian = 0
  
   kfbh.hard    
     kf3.h   /* H.A.R.D. magic # and block size */  

  kfbh.type
    kf3.h    /* metadata block type               */

  kfbh.datfmt
    kf3.h   /* metadata block data format        */

  kfbh.block
    kf3.h   /* block location of this block      */
      blk -- Disk header should have T=0 and NUMB=0x0
      obj -- Disk header should have TYPE=0x8 NUMB=<disknumber>
    blk and obj values are derived from a series of macros in kf3.h.  See 
    "KFBL Macros" in kf3.h for more information.

  kfbh.check
    kf3.h   /* check value to verify consistency */

  kfbh.fcn
    kf3.h   /* change number of last change      */
     
  kfdhdb.driver
    kf3.h   /* OSMLIB driver reserved block  */
       If no driver is defined "ORCLDISK" is used.  
      
  kfdhdb.compat
    kf3.h   /* Comaptible software version   */
      example: 0x0a100000 
      You get:      
          a=10 1=1 so 10.1.0.0.0

  kfdhdb.dsknum
    kf3.h   /* OSM disk number               *
      This is the disk number.  The first disk being "0".  There can be up to
      ub2 disks in a diskgroup.  This allows for 65336 disks 0 through 65335.

  kfdhdb.grptyp
    kf3.h   /* Disk group type               */

  kfdhdb.hdrsts
    kf3.h   /* Disk header status            */
      This is what is used to determine if a disk is available or not to 
      the diskgroup.  0x03 is the correct value for a valid status.

  kfdhdb.dskname   /* OSM disk name       */
  kfdhdb.grpname   /* OSM disk group name */
  kfdhdb.fgname    /* Failure group name  */
  kfdhdb.capname   /* Capacity grp, unused*/
    kf3.h 

  kfdhdb.crestmp   /* Creation timestamp            */
  kfdhdb.mntstmp   /* Mount timestamp               */
    kf3.h To derive the hi and low time`from an unformated dump use the 
    "KFTS Macros" in kf3.h.

  kfdhdb.secsize
    kf3.h   /* Disk sector size (bytes)      */
      This is the physical sector size of the disk in bytes. All I/O's to the
      disk are described in physical sectors. This must be a power of 2. An
      ideal value would be 4096, but most disks are formatted with 512 byte
      sectors. (from asmlib.h)

  kfdhdb.blksize
    kf3.h   /* Metadata block (bytes)        */
       
  kfdhdb.ausize
    kf3.h   /* Allocation Unit (bytes)       */

  kfdhdb.mfact 
    kf3.h   /* Stride between phys addr AUs  */
     
  kfdhdb.dsksize
    kf3.h   /* Disk size in AUs              */
      Mulitply by AUs to get actual size of disk when added.  
         
  kfdhdb.pmcnt
    kf3.h   /* Permanent phys addressed AUs  */
      Number of physically addressed allocation units.

  kfdhdb.fstlocn
    kf3.h   /* First FreeSpace table blk num */
      Used to find freespace.

  kfdhdb.altlocn
    kf3.h   /* First Alocation table blk num */
      Used to find alocated space.

  kfdhdb.f1b1locn
    kf3.h   /* File Directory blk 1 AU num   */
      Beginging for file directory.
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通过update _NEXT_OBJECT 实现obj$.obj#和obj$.dataobj#跳号

在一些特殊的情况下(比如ORA-00600 [15267],ORA-00600 [KKDLCOB-OBJN-EXISTS],Ora-600 [15260]),考虑需要把dba_objects中的object_id往前推进,这里通过试验的方法实现该功能
数据库版本信息

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
----------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Prod
PL/SQL Release 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
CORE    10.2.0.4.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 10.2.0.4.0 - Production

分析obj和dataobj

SQL> select max(obj#),max(dataobj#) from obj$;

 MAX(OBJ#) MAX(DATAOBJ#)
---------- -------------
     51887         51907

SQL> select name from obj$ where obj#=51887;

NAME
------------------------------
T_DUL

SQL> select name from obj$ where dataobj#=51907;

NAME
------------------------------
_NEXT_OBJECT

SQL> select object_id,data_object_id from dba_objects where object_name='_NEXT_OBJECT';

no rows selected

为什么dba_objects中无_NEXT_OBJECT
因为dba_objects视图中跳过了_NEXT_OBJECT这条记录
_next_object


测试创建新表后obj和dataobj的变化

SQL>  create table t_xff as select * from dual;

Table created.

SQL> select max(obj#),max(dataobj#) from obj$;

 MAX(OBJ#) MAX(DATAOBJ#)
---------- -------------
     51898         51907

SQL> select name from obj$ where obj#=51898;

NAME
------------------------------
T_XFF

SQL> select max(object_id),max(data_object_id) from dba_objects where object_name='T_XFF';

MAX(OBJECT_ID) MAX(DATA_OBJECT_ID)
-------------- -------------------
         51898               51898

通过测试可以确定,obj发生增加,但是dataobj不一定增加(因为dataobj本身比obj大,如果出现obj>dataobj那属于异常情况)

测试数据库重启obj和dataobj是否会跳号

---正常重启数据库
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> STARTUP
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  260046848 bytes
Fixed Size                  1266920 bytes
Variable Size              83888920 bytes
Database Buffers          171966464 bytes
Redo Buffers                2924544 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> select max(obj#),max(dataobj#) from obj$;

 MAX(OBJ#) MAX(DATAOBJ#)
---------- -------------
     51898         51907

---强制重启数据库
SQL> shutdown abort
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  260046848 bytes
Fixed Size                  1266920 bytes
Variable Size              83888920 bytes
Database Buffers          171966464 bytes
Redo Buffers                2924544 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> select max(obj#),max(dataobj#) from obj$;

 MAX(OBJ#) MAX(DATAOBJ#)
---------- -------------
     51898         51907

通过这个证明obj和dataobj没有因为数据库重启而发生改变

实现obj跳号

SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup restrict
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  260046848 bytes
Fixed Size                  1266920 bytes
Variable Size              83888920 bytes
Database Buffers          171966464 bytes
Redo Buffers                2924544 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL>  update obj$ set dataobj#=1000000 where name='_NEXT_OBJECT';  

1 row updated.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> shutdown abort;
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  260046848 bytes
Fixed Size                  1266920 bytes
Variable Size              83888920 bytes
Database Buffers          171966464 bytes
Redo Buffers                2924544 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> select max(obj#),max(dataobj#) from obj$;

 MAX(OBJ#) MAX(DATAOBJ#)
---------- -------------
     51898       1000000

SQL> create table t_www_xifenfei_com as select * from dual;

Table created.

SQL> select max(obj#),max(dataobj#) from obj$;

 MAX(OBJ#) MAX(DATAOBJ#)
---------- -------------
   1000000       1000010

SQL> select max(object_id),max(data_object_id) from dba_objects;

MAX(OBJECT_ID) MAX(DATA_OBJECT_ID)
-------------- -------------------
       1000000             1000000

SQL> select object_name from dba_objects where object_id=1000000;

OBJECT_NAME
----------------------------------------------------------------
T_WWW_XIFENFEI_COM

通过丢_NEXT_OBJECT的更新实现obj和dataobj跳号(变成100w)

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