给你的rman备份集加上密码锁

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标题:给你的rman备份集加上密码锁

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

数据的安全越来越重要,不是说你的生产库安全,你的数据就一定安全了,rman备份也是泄露数据的一个重要地方,如果别人拿到了你的备份集,一样等同入侵了你的生产库。为了rman备份的安全,最简单方式就是使用set encryption方式在rman备份过程中设置密码,需要版本为10.2及其以后企业版版,另外如果需要备份到带库只能使用oracle自己的osb(Oracle Secure Backup),注意rman只有backupset可以加密,copy无法进行加密
数据库版本

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
PL/SQL Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
CORE    11.2.0.4.0      Production
TNS for Linux: Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
NLSRTL Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production

SQL> show parameter compatible

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
compatible                           string      11.2.0.4.0

支持rman加密算法

SQL> select ALGORITHM_NAME
  2  from V$RMAN_ENCRYPTION_ALGORITHMS;

ALGORITHM_NAME
----------------------------------------------------------------
AES128
AES192
AES256

调整加密算法

RMAN> show  ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM;

RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name ORCL are:
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default

RMAN> CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES256';

new RMAN configuration parameters:
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES256';
new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored

RMAN> show ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM;

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
RMAN configuration parameters for database with db_unique_name ORCL are:
CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES256';

创建新测试数据文件
我们这里测试的是对新创建的5号文件进行加密备份和还原

SQL> select name from v$datafile;

NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

SQL> create tablespace rman_xifenfei datafile 
  2 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf' size 100M;

Tablespace created.

SQL> select file#,name from v$datafile;

     FILE# NAME
---------- --------------------------------------------------
         1 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf
         2 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf
         3 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf
         4 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf
         5 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf

SQL> create table chf.t_xifenfei tablespace rman_xifenfei 
  2  as select * from dba_objects;

Table created.

SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     86721

rman加密备份

RMAN> set encryption on identified by 'www.xifenfei.com' only;

executing command: SET encryption

RMAN> backup datafile 5;

Starting backup at 28-JAN-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=5 device type=DISK
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backup set
input datafile file number=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 28-JAN-15
channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 28-JAN-15
piece handle=/u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp tag=TAG20150128T230115 comment=NONE
channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished backup at 28-JAN-15

准备恢复测试

RMAN> sql 'alter database datafile 5 offline';

sql statement: alter database datafile 5 offline

[oracle@localhost ~]$ rm /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf
[oracle@localhost ~]$ ls /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf
ls: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf: No such file or directory

rman恢复测试

[oracle@localhost ~]$ rman target /

Recovery Manager: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Wed Jan 28 23:02:24 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.

connected to target database: ORCL (DBID=1378620768)

RMAN> list backup of datafile 5;

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

List of Backup Sets
===================


BS Key  Type LV Size       Device Type Elapsed Time Completion Time
------- ---- -- ---------- ----------- ------------ ---------------
1       Full    10.94M     DISK        00:00:01     28-JAN-15      
        BP Key: 1   Status: AVAILABLE  Compressed: NO  Tag: TAG20150128T230115
        Piece Name: /u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp
  List of Datafiles in backup set 1
  File LV Type Ckp SCN    Ckp Time  Name
  ---- -- ---- ---------- --------- ----
  5       Full 54057180   28-JAN-15 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf

--未输入密码
RMAN> restore datafile 5;

Starting restore at 28-JAN-15
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=492 device type=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00005 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 01/28/2015 23:02:52
ORA-19870: error while restoring backup piece /u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp
ORA-19913: unable to decrypt backup
ORA-28365: wallet is not open

--设置错误密码
RMAN> SET DECRYPTION IDENTIFIED BY 'www.orasos.com';

executing command: SET decryption

RMAN> restore datafile 5;

Starting restore at 28-JAN-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00005 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-00569: =============== ERROR MESSAGE STACK FOLLOWS ===============
RMAN-00571: ===========================================================
RMAN-03002: failure of restore command at 01/28/2015 23:03:31
ORA-19870: error while restoring backup piece /u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp
ORA-19913: unable to decrypt backup
ORA-28365: wallet is not open

--设置正确密码
RMAN> SET DECRYPTION IDENTIFIED BY 'www.xifenfei.com';

executing command: SET decryption

RMAN> restore datafile 5;

Starting restore at 28-JAN-15
using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting datafile backup set restore
channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) to restore from backup set
channel ORA_DISK_1: restoring datafile 00005 to /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/xifenfei01.dbf
channel ORA_DISK_1: reading from backup piece /u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp
channel ORA_DISK_1: piece handle=/u01/2015_01_28/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20150128T230115_bdkyfvlw_.bkp tag=TAG20150128T230115
channel ORA_DISK_1: restored backup piece 1
channel ORA_DISK_1: restore complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01
Finished restore at 28-JAN-15

验证数据还原

RMAN> recover datafile 5;

Starting recover at 28-JAN-15
using target database control file instead of recovery catalog
allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1
channel ORA_DISK_1: SID=7 device type=DISK

starting media recovery
media recovery complete, elapsed time: 00:00:00

Finished recover at 28-JAN-15

RMAN> sql 'alter database datafile 5 online';

sql statement: alter database datafile 5 online

RMAN> exit

Recovery Manager complete.
[oracle@localhost ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production on Wed Jan 28 23:05:55 2015

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, OLAP, Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select count(*) from chf.t_xifenfei;

  COUNT(*)
----------
     86721

至此我们可以看到,最简单的rman加密备份和加密恢复测试完成,在使用set encryption加密后,如果不输入或者错误的输入密码无法使用备份集,从而确保了备份集的安全.

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