找回ASM中数据文件

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标题:找回ASM中数据文件

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

很多时候由于asm不能正常启动,导致数据丢失。下面提供两种方法找回asm中的数据文件
一.使用AMDU工具
AMDU是Oracle 11g里自带的一个免费的工具,用于分析ASM磁盘组的元数据以及从不能mount的磁盘组中往外抽取数据文件“NOTE:553639.1 Placeholder for AMDU binaries and using with ASM 10g”明确指出:AMDU也可用于10g,并提供了可用于10g的AMDU的各个操作系统的版本供大家下载。
1.设置LD_LIBRARY_PATH

rac1-> export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/tmp/amdu

2.查看asm磁盘信息

rac1-> ./amdu -diskstring '/dev/raw/raw*'  
amdu_2012_03_05_03_17_19/
rac1-> cd amdu_2012_03_05_03_17_19/
rac1-> ls
report.txt
rac1-> more report.txt 
-*-amdu-*-

******************************* AMDU Settings ********************************
ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1
System name:    Linux
Node name:      rac1
Release:        2.6.9-89.0.0.0.1.ELhugemem
Version:        #1 SMP Tue May 19 04:38:38 EDT 2009
Machine:        i686
amdu run:       05-MAR-12 03:17:19
Endianess:      1

--------------------------------- Operations ---------------------------------

------------------------------- Disk Selection -------------------------------
 -diskstring '/dev/raw/raw*'

------------------------------ Reading Control -------------------------------

------------------------------- Output Control -------------------------------

********************************* DISCOVERY **********************************

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0001 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw23
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 156 megabytes
** NOT A VALID ASM DISK HEADER. BAD VALUE IN FIELD blksize_kfdhdb **

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0002 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw11
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 156 megabytes
** NOT A VALID ASM DISK HEADER. BAD VALUE IN FIELD blksize_kfdhdb **

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0003 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw32
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 156 megabytes
** NOT A VALID ASM DISK HEADER. BAD VALUE IN FIELD blksize_kfdhdb **

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0004 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw31
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 156 megabytes
** NOT A VALID ASM DISK HEADER. BAD VALUE IN FIELD blksize_kfdhdb **

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0005 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw12
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 156 megabytes
** NOT A VALID ASM DISK HEADER. BAD VALUE IN FIELD blksize_kfdhdb **

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0006 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw2
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 1976 megabytes
               Group Name: DATA
                Disk Name: DATA_0001
       Failure Group Name: DATA_0001
              Disk Number: 1
            Header Status: 3
       Disk Creation Time: 2012/03/01 22:32:39.289000
          Last Mount Time: 2012/03/05 02:10:02.771000
    Compatibility Version: 0x0a100000
         Disk Sector Size: 512 bytes
         Disk size in AUs: 1976 AUs
         Group Redundancy: 1
      Metadata Block Size: 4096 bytes
                  AU Size: 1048576 bytes
                   Stride: 113792 AUs
      Group Creation Time: 2012/03/01 22:32:39.221000
  File 1 Block 1 location: AU 0

----------------------------- DISK REPORT N0007 ------------------------------
                Disk Path: /dev/raw/raw1
           Unique Disk ID: 
               Disk Label: 
     Physical Sector Size: 512 bytes
                Disk Size: 3137 megabytes
               Group Name: DATA
                Disk Name: DATA_0000
       Failure Group Name: DATA_0000
              Disk Number: 0
            Header Status: 3
       Disk Creation Time: 2012/03/01 22:32:39.289000
          Last Mount Time: 2012/03/05 02:10:02.771000
    Compatibility Version: 0x0a100000
         Disk Sector Size: 512 bytes
         Disk size in AUs: 3137 AUs
         Group Redundancy: 1
      Metadata Block Size: 4096 bytes
                  AU Size: 1048576 bytes
                   Stride: 113792 AUs
      Group Creation Time: 2012/03/01 22:32:39.221000
  File 1 Block 1 location: AU 2

******************************* END OF REPORT ********************************

从这里可以得到信息如下:
1)只有/dev/raw/raw1和raw2是有效的asm磁盘
2)磁盘组只有DATA

3.找出数据文件信息

rac1-> ../amdu -diskstring '/dev/raw/raw*'  -dump 'DATA'
amdu_2012_03_05_03_19_38/
rac1-> cd amdu_2012_03_05_03_19_38/
rac1-> ls
DATA_0001.img  DATA.map  report.txt
rac1-> strings DATA_0001.img |grep DATAFILE
DATAFILE
DATAFILE
DATAFILE
DEVDB/DATAFILE/SYSTEM.256.776817753
DEVDB/DATAFILE/SYSAUX.257.776817753
DEVDB/DATAFILE/UNDOTBS1.258.776817753
DEVDB/DATAFILE/USERS.259.776817753
DEVDB/DATAFILE/UNDOTBS2.267.776817909

从这里可以得出数据文件的file号(第一位数字)

4.恢复数据文件

rac1-> ../../amdu -diskstring '/dev/raw/raw*' -extract 'DATA.259'
amdu_2012_03_05_03_27_21/
rac1-> cd amdu_2012_03_05_03_27_21/
rac1-> ls -l
total 5148
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall 5251072 Mar  5 03:27 DATA_259.f
-rw-r--r--  1 oracle oinstall    6468 Mar  5 03:27 report.txt
rac1-> dbv file=DATA_259.f

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon Mar 5 03:28:00 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = DATA_259.f


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 640
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 15
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 2
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 26
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 597
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Highest block SCN            : 442362 (0.442362)

二.使用aulasm工具
1.配置ASM使用磁盘

[root@rac1 oracle]# more disk
/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb2

2.使用aulasm

[root@rac1 oracle]# ./aulasm_linux32_trial.bin 
AUL : AnySQL UnLoader(MyDUL) for Oracle ASM, release 2.0.0

(C) Copyright Lou Fangxin 2011-2012 (AnySQL.net), all rights reserved.

ASM> help
  SET        -- set options (BLOCK_SIZE, AU_SIZE, F1B1_DISK, F1B1_AU)
  OPEN       -- open data file
  ADD        -- add disk with customized disk num (disk, path)
  LIST       -- list opened disks information (to)
  LSAU       -- list file of given AU (disk, au, count)
  FILE       -- list all file entries in ASM (file, [disk, au, block]).
  ALIAS      -- list all alias entries in ASM (file, [disk, au, block]).
  EXTENT     -- list or adjust variable extent (level, au, count).
  FMAP       -- list file extent (file, [disk, au, block], to)
  DUMP       -- dump file extent (file, [disk, au, block], offset, to)
  COPY       -- copy file to os  (file, [disk, au, block], to)
  QUIT/EXIT  -- exit the program.
ASM> open disk
2012-03-05 03:32:48
2012-03-05 03:32:48
ASM> list
2012-03-05 03:32:49
Total Disks = 2, ausize=1048576, blksize=4096

 disk     size block disk name        disk group   disk path               
===== ======== ===== ================ ============ ========================
    0     3137  4096 DATA_0000        DATA         /dev/sdb1
    1     1976  4096 DATA_0001        DATA         /dev/sdb2

f1b1disk = 0, f1b1au = 2, score=256, compat=0x0a100000
file=(1,0,2,1), disk=(2,0,2,2), alias=(6,0,2,6)
2012-03-05 03:32:49
ASM> alias
2012-03-05 03:33:15
    file          inc parent fstblk flag  refer alias                     
======== ============ ====== ====== ==== ====== ==========================
      -1           -1      0      0    4      1 DEVDB
      -1           -1      0      1    4      2 DATAFILE
      -1           -1      0      1    4      3 CONTROLFILE
      -1           -1      0      1    4      4 ONLINELOG
      -1           -1      0      1    4      5 TEMPFILE
      -1           -1      0      1    4      6 PARAMETERFILE
      -1           -1      0      1    4      7 ARCHIVELOG
     256    776817753      1      2   18     -1 SYSTEM
     257    776817753      1      2   18     -1 SYSAUX
     258    776817753      1      2   18     -1 UNDOTBS1
     259    776817753      1      2   18     -1 USERS
     267    776817909      1      2   18     -1 UNDOTBS2
     261    776817829      1      3   18     -1 Current
     260    776817829      1      3   18     -1 Current
     262    776817833      1      4   18     -1 group_1
     263    776817835      1      4   18     -1 group_1
     264    776817837      1      4   18     -1 group_2
     265    776817841      1      4   18     -1 group_2
     268    776818011      1      4   18     -1 group_3
     269    776818013      1      4   18     -1 group_3
     270    776818015      1      4   18     -1 group_4
     271    776818017      1      4   18     -1 group_4
     266    776817859      1      5   18     -1 TEMP
     272    776818021      1      6   18     -1 spfile
      -1           -1      1      7    4      8 2012_03_01
      -1           -1      1      7    4      9 2012_03_03
      -1           -1      1      7    4     10 2012_03_05
     273    776818747      7      8   18     -1 thread_1_seq_2
     274    776819571      7      8   18     -1 thread_1_seq_3
     275    776819721      7      8   18     -1 thread_2_seq_1
     276    776820331      7      8   18     -1 thread_1_seq_4
     277    776992321      7      9   18     -1 thread_1_seq_5
     278    776992321      7      9   18     -1 thread_2_seq_2
     279    777089437      7     10   18     -1 thread_1_seq_6
2012-03-05 03:33:15
ASM> fmap file 259    
2012-03-05 03:34:49
fid=259, disk=0, au=56, block=3
siz=5, ecnt=6, eeof=6, flags=17, type=12, alias=109,-1
     extid  disk       auid  cnt flg chk
========== ===== ========== ==== === ===
         1     0        428    1   0 135
         2     1        408    1   0 178
         3     0        429    1   0 134
         4     1        409    1   0 179
         5     0        430    1   0 133
         6     1        410    1   0 176
2012-03-05 03:34:49
ASM> copy file 259 to user_259
2012-03-05 03:35:01
2012-03-05 03:35:01
[root@rac1 oracle]# ll
total 6252
-rwxr-xr-x  1 root   root       84619 Mar  6  2012 aulasm_linux32_trial.bin
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root          20 Mar  5 02:52 disk
-rw-r--r--  1 root   root     6291456 Mar  5 03:35 user_259
[root@rac1 oracle]# su - oracle
rac1-> dbv file=user_259 

DBVERIFY: Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production on Mon Mar 5 03:35:27 2012

Copyright (c) 1982, 2005, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = user_259


DBVERIFY - Verification complete

Total Pages Examined         : 640
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 15
Total Pages Failing   (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 2
Total Pages Failing   (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 26
Total Pages Processed (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Failing   (Seg)  : 0
Total Pages Empty            : 597
Total Pages Marked Corrupt   : 0
Total Pages Influx           : 0
Highest block SCN            : 442362 (0.442362)

通过dbv验证,两个数据文件(文件大小有出入,可能在对待未格式化数据块上,两者处理有出入)可以基本上确定一致,证明两种方法都可以从异常的ASM中获取数据文件

三.总结与比较
1.AMDU完全免费,aulasm超过16块硬盘需要收费
2.AMDU操作相对于aulasm麻烦一点,但是整体还是可以接受
3.获取到asm中的数据文件后恢复数据内容或者open库,那都是容易的事情
如果因为磁盘头损坏太多或者其他原因,以上方法都不能实现抽取asm磁盘组中数据文件,参考:asm disk header 彻底损坏恢复

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