修改oracle数据库字符集

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标题:修改oracle数据库字符集

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

现在有个需求,需要数据库字符集从ZHS16GBK修改为AL32UTF8,因为他们没有子集的关系,所以在转换前,需要先检测库中的数据内容是否全库可以转换为AL32UTF8字符集,检测使用oracle提供的csscan工具实现
一、csscan使用
1.安装csscan相关数据字典

SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/csminst.sql

2.csscan使用说明

[oracle@node1 ~]$ csscan help=y


Character Set Scanner v2.2 : Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Wed Dec 21 12:30:42 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


You can let Scanner prompt you for parameters by entering the CSSCAN        
command followed by your username/password:                                 
                                                                            
  Example: CSSCAN \"SYSTEM/MANAGER AS SYSDBA\"                          
                                                                            
Or, you can control how Scanner runs by entering the CSSCAN command         
followed by various parameters. To specify parameters, you use keywords:    
                                                                            
  Example:                                                                  
    CSSCAN \"SYSTEM/MANAGER AS SYSDBA\" FULL=y TOCHAR=utf8 ARRAY=1024000 PROCESS=3  
                                                                            
Keyword    Default Prompt Description                                       
---------- ------- ------ ------------------------------------------------- 
USERID             yes    username/password                                 
FULL       N       yes    scan entire database                              
USER               yes    owner of tables to be scanned                     
TABLE              yes    list of tables to scan                            
COLUMN             yes    list of columns to scan                            
EXCLUDE                   list of tables to exclude from scan               
TOCHAR             yes    new database character set name                   
FROMCHAR                  current database character set name               
TONCHAR                   new national character set name                   
FROMNCHAR                 current national character set name               
ARRAY      1024000 yes    size of array fetch buffer                        
PROCESS    1       yes    number of concurrent scan process                 
MAXBLOCKS                 split table if block size exceed MAXBLOCKS        
CAPTURE    N              capture convertible data                          
SUPPRESS                  maximum number of exceptions logged for each table
FEEDBACK                  report progress every N rows                      
BOUNDARIES                list of column size boundaries for summary report 
LASTRPT    N              generate report of the last database scan         
LOG        scan           base file name of report files                    
PARFILE                   parameter file name                               
PRESERVE   N              preserve existing scan results                    
LCSD       N       no     enable language and character set detection       
LCSDDATA   LOSSY   no     define the scope of the detection                 
HELP       N              show help screen (this screen)                    
QUERY      N              select clause to scan subset of tables or columns 
---------- ------- ------ ------------------------------------------------- 
Scanner terminated successfully.

3.使用csscan检测当前数据库

[oracle@node1 ~]$ csscan userid="'"sys/xifenfei as sysdba"'" full=y \
fromchar=ZHS16GBK tochar=AL32UTF8 log=/tmp/check.log capture=y array=1000000 process=4


Character Set Scanner v2.2 : Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Wed Dec 21 12:36:37 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Oracle Label Security, OLAP, Data Mining,
Oracle Database Vault and Real Application Testing options

Enumerating tables to scan...

. process 1 scanning SYS.SOURCE$[AAAADgAABAAAAXgAAA]
. process 2 scanning XFF.T1[AAATjjAAEAAAC7AAAA]
. process 3 scanning TEST.T_XFF[AAAT+6AAEAAAAIQAAA]
. process 2 scanning SYS.METHOD$[AAAAHvAABAAAA0QAAA]
. process 4 scanning SYS.ATTRIBUTE$[AAAAHvAABAAAA0QAAA]
…………………………………………
. process 4 scanning CTXSYS.DR$INDEX_CDI_COLUMN
. process 2 scanning CTXSYS.DR$SDATA_UPDATE
. process 1 scanning EXFSYS.RLM$RULESETSTCODE
. process 3 scanning EXFSYS.RLM$RULESET

Creating Database Scan Summary Report...

Creating Individual Exception Report...

Scanner terminated successfully.

4.查看csscan检查日志

[oracle@node1 ~]$ ll /tmp/check.log.*
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall  14526 12-21 12:37 /tmp/check.log.err
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall 100235 12-21 12:37 /tmp/check.log.out
-rw-r--r-- 1 oracle oinstall   8265 12-21 12:37 /tmp/check.log.txt
--err是错误日志
--out是执行过程
--txt是执行结果汇总
[oracle@node1 tmp]$ cat /tmp/check.log.txt 
Database Scan Summary Report

Time Started  : 2011-12-21 12:36:37
Time Completed: 2011-12-21 12:37:13

Process ID         Time Started       Time Completed
---------- -------------------- --------------------
         1  2011-12-21 12:36:43  2011-12-21 12:37:12
         2  2011-12-21 12:36:43  2011-12-21 12:37:12
         3  2011-12-21 12:36:43  2011-12-21 12:37:12
         4  2011-12-21 12:36:43  2011-12-21 12:37:12
---------- -------------------- --------------------

[Database Size]

Tablespace                           Used            Free           Total       Expansion
------------------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------
SYSTEM                            723.63M           6.38M         730.00M            .00K
SYSAUX                            686.56M         103.44M         790.00M            .00K
UNDOTBS1                           18.31M         126.69M         145.00M            .00K
TEMP                                 .00K            .00K            .00K            .00K
USERS                             138.69M          22.56M         161.25M            .00K
EXAMPLE                           310.13M          35.50M         345.63M            .00K
------------------------- --------------- --------------- --------------- ---------------
Total                           1,877.31M         294.56M       2,171.88M            .00K

[Database Scan Parameters]

Parameter                      Value                                           
------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------
CSSCAN Version                 v2.1                                            
Instance Name                  ora11g                                          
Database Version               11.2.0.3.0                                      
Scan type                      Full database                                   
Scan CHAR data?                YES                                             
Database character set         ZHS16GBK                                        
FROMCHAR                       ZHS16GBK                                        
TOCHAR                         AL32UTF8                                        
Scan NCHAR data?               NO                                              
Array fetch buffer size        1000000                                         
Number of processes            4                                               
Capture convertible data?      YES                                             
------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------

[Scan Summary]

All character type data in the data dictionary are convertible to the new character set
All character type application data remain the same in the new character set

[Data Dictionary Conversion Summary]

Data Dictionary Tables:

Datatype                    Changeless      Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
--------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
VARCHAR2                     6,061,403              152                0                0
CHAR                             4,988                0                0                0
LONG                           252,530                0                0                0
VARRAY                          50,812                0                0                0
--------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
Total                        6,369,733              152                0                0
Total in percentage             99.998%           0.002%           0.000%           0.000%

The data dictionary can not be safely migrated using the CSALTER script

XML CSX Dictionary Tables:

Datatype                    Changeless      Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
--------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
VARCHAR2                           711                0                0                0
CHAR                                 0                0                0                0
LONG                                 0                0                0                0
VARRAY                               0                0                0                0
--------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
Total                              711                0                0                0
Total in percentage            100.000%           0.000%           0.000%           0.000%

[Application Data Conversion Summary]

Datatype                    Changeless      Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
--------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
VARCHAR2                     8,142,707                0                0                0
CHAR                            63,085                0                0                0
LONG                                 0                0                0                0
VARRAY                             583                0                0                0
--------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
Total                        8,206,375                0                0                0
Total in percentage            100.000%           0.000%           0.000%           0.000%

[Distribution of Convertible, Truncated and Lossy Data by Table]

Data Dictionary Tables:

USER.TABLE                                              Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
CTXSYS.DR$INDEX_VALUE                                            76                0                0
CTXSYS.DR$STOPWORD                                               76                0                0
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

XML CSX Dictionary Tables:

USER.TABLE                                              Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

Application Data:

USER.TABLE                                              Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

[Distribution of Convertible, Truncated and Lossy Data by Column]

Data Dictionary Tables:

USER.TABLE|COLUMN                                       Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
CTXSYS.DR$INDEX_VALUE|IXV_VALUE                                  76                0                0
CTXSYS.DR$STOPWORD|SPW_WORD                                      76                0                0
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

XML CSX Dictionary Tables:

USER.TABLE|COLUMN                                       Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

Application Data:

USER.TABLE|COLUMN                                       Convertible       Truncation            Lossy
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------- ---------------- ----------------

[Indexes to be Rebuilt]

USER.INDEX on USER.TABLE(COLUMN)                                                         
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--因为检测结果没有Truncation(截断数据)/Lossy(丢失数据)都不存在记录,所以不用查看错误日志
--如果发现不为0,需要检查err日志,然后先处理丢这些记录,然后再转换

二、修改数据库字符集

[oracle@node1 tmp]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.3.0 Production on Wed Dec 21 12:59:55 2011

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Oracle Label Security, OLAP, Data Mining,
Oracle Database Vault and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select value$ from props$ where name='NLS_CHARACTERSET';

VALUE$
------------------------------------------------------
ZHS16GBK

SQL> shutdown immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup mount
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2137886720 bytes
Fixed Size                  2230072 bytes
Variable Size            1493174472 bytes
Database Buffers          637534208 bytes
Redo Buffers                4947968 bytes
Database mounted.

SQL> alter system enable restricted session;

System altered.

SQL> alter system set job_queue_processes=0 scope=memory;

System altered.

SQL> alter system set aq_tm_processes=0  scope=memory;

System altered.

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database character set internal_use AL32UTF8;

Database altered.

SQL> shutdown  immediate;
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 2137886720 bytes
Fixed Size                  2230072 bytes
Variable Size            1493174472 bytes
Database Buffers          637534208 bytes
Redo Buffers                4947968 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> select value$ from props$ where name='NLS_CHARACTERSET';

VALUE$
--------------------------------------------------------
AL32UTF8
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