ORACLE 12C PDB 维护基础介绍

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标题:ORACLE 12C PDB 维护基础介绍

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CDB和PDB是ORACLE 12C一个很亮的新特性,由于他们的引入导致传统的ORACLE数据库管理理念不少发生了改变,这里列举了部分最基本的cdb和pdb管理方式
cdb和pdb关系图

ORACLE 12C版本

SQL> select * from v$version;

BANNER                                                                               CON_ID
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 - 64bit Production              0
PL/SQL Release 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                                    0
CORE    12.1.0.1.0      Production                                                        0
TNS for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                            0
NLSRTL Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production                                                    0

启动关闭pdb

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area  597098496 bytes
Fixed Size                  2291072 bytes
Variable Size             272632448 bytes
Database Buffers          314572800 bytes
Redo Buffers                7602176 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         2 4048821679 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           MOUNTED
         4 3872456618 PDB2                           MOUNTED

SQL> alter PLUGGABLE database pdb1 open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         2 4048821679 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           READ WRITE
         4 3872456618 PDB2                           MOUNTED

SQL> alter PLUGGABLE database pdb1 close;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         2 4048821679 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           MOUNTED
         4 3872456618 PDB2                           MOUNTED

SQL> alter PLUGGABLE database all open;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         2 4048821679 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           READ WRITE
         4 3872456618 PDB2                           READ WRITE

SQL> alter PLUGGABLE database all close;

Pluggable database altered.

SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         2 4048821679 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           MOUNTED
         4 3872456618 PDB2                           MOUNTED

SQL> alter session set container=pdb1;

Session altered.

SQL> startup
Pluggable Database opened.
SQL>  select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           READ WRITE

pdb的管理可以在cdb中进行也可以在pdb中进行,如果是cdb中进行,需要PLUGGABLE关键字,如果是pdb中直接和普通数据库一样

登录pdb

[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ lsnrctl status

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on 12-MAY-2013 08:07:02

Copyright (c) 1991, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=xifenfei)(PORT=1521)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
------------------------
Alias                     LISTENER
Version                   TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production
Start Date                11-MAY-2013 18:30:54
Uptime                    0 days 13 hr. 36 min. 8 sec
Trace Level               off
Security                  ON: Local OS Authentication
SNMP                      OFF
Listener Parameter File   /u01/app/grid/product/12.1/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File         /u01/app/grid/diag/tnslsnr/xifenfei/listener/alert/log.xml
Listening Endpoints Summary...
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=xifenfei)(PORT=1521)))
  (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcps)(HOST=xifenfei)(PORT=5500))
(Security=(my_wallet_directory=/u01/oracle/12.1/db_1/admin/cdb/xdb_wallet))(Presentation=HTTP)(Session=RAW))
Services Summary...
Service "+ASM" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "+ASM", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "cdb" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "cdbXDB" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb1" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
Service "pdb2" has 1 instance(s).
  Instance "cdb", status READY, has 1 handler(s) for this service...
The command completed successfully
[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ tnsping pdb1

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 - Production on 12-MAY-2013 08:07:09

Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:


Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = xifenfei)
(PORT = 1521)) (CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = pdb1)))
OK (20 msec)
[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ sqlplus sys/xifenfei@pdb1 as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.1.0 Production on Sun May 12 08:08:02 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> show con_name;

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1


[oracle@xifenfei ~]$ sqlplus / as sysdba

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.1.0 Production on Sun May 12 08:09:14 2013

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  All rights reserved.


Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 - 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Advanced Analytics
and Real Application Testing options

SQL> alter session set container=pdb1;

Session altered.

SQL> show con_name;

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1

pdb可以通过alter session container进入也可以直接通过tns方式登录

创建用户

SQL> show con_name;

CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB$ROOT

SQL> select con_id,dbid,NAME,OPEN_MODE from v$pdbs;

    CON_ID       DBID NAME                           OPEN_MODE
---------- ---------- ------------------------------ ----------
         2 4048821679 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY
         3 3313918585 PDB1                           READ WRITE
         4 3872456618 PDB2                           MOUNTED

SQL> create user xff identified by xifenfei;
create user xff identified by xifenfei
            *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65096: invalid common user or role name


SQL> !oerr ora 65096
65096, 00000, "invalid common user or role name"
// *Cause:  An attempt was made to create a common user or role with a name
//          that wass not valid for common users or roles.  In addition to 
//          the usual rules for user and role names, common user and role 
//          names must start with C## or c## and consist only of ASCII 
//          characters.
// *Action: Specify a valid common user or role name.
//

SQL> create user c##xff identified by xifenfei;

User created.

SQL> SELECT USERNAME,CON_ID,USER_ID FROM CDB_USERS WHERE USERNAME='C##XFF';

USERNAME       CON_ID    USER_ID
---------- ---------- ----------
C##XFF              1        103
C##XFF              3        104

SQL> alter session set container=pdb1;

Session altered.

SQL> show con_name

CON_NAME
------------------------------
PDB1
SQL> create user xff identified by xifenfei;

User created.

SQL> create user c##abc identified by xifenfei;
create user c##abc identified by xifenfei
            *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-65094: invalid local user or role name

创建用户默认的是container=all,在cdb中只能创建全局用户(c##开头),会在cdb和所有的pdb中创建该用户(但是pdb中的全局用户需要另外授权才能够在pdb中访问)。在pdb中只能创建的用户为本地用户

用户授权

SQL> grant connect to c##xff;

Grant succeeded.

SQL> select GRANTEE,con_id from cdb_ROLE_PRIVS where GRANTED_ROLE='CONNECT' AND GRANTEE='C##XFF';

GRANTEE                            CON_ID
------------------------------ ----------
C##XFF                                  1

SQL> grant resource to c##xff container=all;

Grant succeeded.

SQL>  select GRANTEE,con_id from cdb_ROLE_PRIVS where GRANTED_ROLE='RESOURCE' AND  GRANTEE='C##XFF';

GRANTEE                            CON_ID
------------------------------ ----------
C##XFF                                  1
C##XFF                                  3

用户授权默认情况下是只会给当前container,在cdb中也可以指定container=all,对所有open的pdb且存在该用户都进行授权

修改参数

SQL> alter system set open_cursors=500 container=all;

System altered.

SQL> conn sys/xifenfei@pdb1 as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> show parameter open_cursors;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
open_cursors                         integer     500
SQL>  alter system set open_cursors=100;
 alter system set open_cursors=100
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01219: database or pluggable database not open: queries allowed on fixed
tables or views only


SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> alter system set open_cursors=100;

System altered.

SQL>  show parameter open_cursors;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
open_cursors                         integer     100
SQL> conn / as sysdba
Connected.
SQL> show parameter open_cursors;

NAME                                 TYPE        VALUE
------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------
open_cursors                         integer     500

这里可以看到在cdb中修改,pdb会继承进去;如果在pdb中修改会覆盖pdb从cdb中继承的参数含义

此条目发表在 ORACLE 12C 分类目录。将固定链接加入收藏夹。

ORACLE 12C PDB 维护基础介绍》有 8 条评论

  1. tao32 说:

    我alter PLUGGABLE database XX open;打开了PDB,并 alter session set container=XX登录到了PDB。

    但是我创建下的  用户后貌似只能用sysdba登录 这是怎么回事啊

      [引用]  [回复]

  2. crystalj 说:

    已经弄明白该怎么配置了。谢谢!

      [引用]  [回复]

  3. crystalj 说:

    1) show pdbs

    [oracle@lxqdrmdb1|db12c]/ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin>echo $ORACLE_SID
    db12c

    [oracle@lxqdrmdb1|db12c]/ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin>sqlplus / as sysdba

    SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.1.0 Production on Wed Nov 6 19:41:26 2013

    Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved.

    Connected to:
    Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 – 64bit Production
    With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

    SQL> show pdbs;

    CON_ID CON_NAME OPEN MODE RESTRICTED
    ———- —————————— ———- ———-
    2 PDB$SEED READ ONLY NO
    3 PDB1 READ WRITE NO
    SQL> exit
    Disconnected from Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.1.0 – 64bit Production
    With the Partitioning, OLAP, Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options
    [oracle@lxqdrmdb1|db12c]/ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin>

    2) lsnrctl status

    [oracle@lxqdrmdb1|db12c]/ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin>lsnrctl status LISTENER_DB12C

    LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 – Production on 06-NOV-2013 19:42:17

    Copyright (c) 1991, 2013, Oracle. All rights reserved.

    Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=TCP)(HOST=lxqdrmdb1)(PORT=1528)))
    STATUS of the LISTENER
    ————————
    Alias LISTENER_DB12C
    Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 12.1.0.1.0 – Production
    Start Date 06-NOV-2013 19:37:39
    Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 4 min. 38 sec
    Trace Level off
    Security ON: Local OS Authentication
    SNMP OFF
    Listener Parameter File /ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin/listener.ora
    Listener Log File /ora/app/oracle/diag/tnslsnr/lxqdrmdb1/listener_db12c/alert/log.xml
    Listening Endpoints Summary…
    (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=lxqdrmdb1)(PORT=1528)))
    (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC1528)))
    Services Summary…
    Service “db12c” has 1 instance(s).
    Instance “db12c”, status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
    Service “pdb1″ has 1 instance(s).
    Instance “pdb1″, status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
    The command completed successfully

    3) cat tnsnames.ora

    [oracle@lxqdrmdb1|db12c]/ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin>cat tnsnames.ora
    # tnsnames.ora Network Configuration File: /ora/app/oracle/product/12.1/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
    # Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

    PDB1 =
    (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = lxqdrmdb1)(PORT = 1528))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
    (SERVER = DEDICATED)
    (SERVICE_NAME = pdb1)
    )
    )

    DB12C =
    (DESCRIPTION =
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
    (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = lxqdrmdb1)(PORT = 1528))
    )
    (CONNECT_DATA =
    (SERVER = DEDICATED)
    (SERVICE_NAME = db12c)
    )
    )


    有个疑问: 到底pdb是否需要配置监听?我尝试过把
    (SID_DESC =
    (GLOBAL_DBNAME = pdb1)
    (ORACLE_HOME = /ora/app/oracle/product/12.1)
    (SID_NAME = pdb1)
    )
    这一段从listener.ora去掉,但是还是会报错,报的是
    ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect
    descriptor

    请指点。万分感谢了!

      [引用]  [回复]

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