Rman备份恢复命令

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标题:Rman备份恢复命令

作者:惜分飞©版权所有[未经本人同意,不得以任何形式转载,否则有进一步追究法律责任的权利.]

一、backup操作
备机集
1.设置备份标记
backup database tag=’full_bak1′;
注:每个标记必须唯一,相同的标记可以用于多个备份只还原最新的备份。

2.设置备份集大小(一次备份的所有结果为一个备份集,要注意备份集大小)
backup database maxsetsize=100m tag=’datafile1′;
注:maxsetsize限定备份集的大小。所以必须大于数据库总数据文件的大小,否则会报错。
RMAN-06183: datafile or datafile copy larger than MAXSETSIZE: file# 1 /data/oradata/system01.dbf

3.设置备份片大小(磁带或文件系统限制)
run {
allocate channel c1 type disk maxpicecsize 100m format ‘/data/backup/full_0_%U_%T’;
backup database tag=’full_0′;
release channel c1;
}
可以在allocate子句中设定每个备份片的大小,以达到磁带或系统限制。
也可以在configure中设置备份片大小。
Configure channel device type disk maxpiecesize 100 m;
configure channel device type disk clear;

4.备份集的保存策略
backup database keep forever; –永久保留备份文件
backup database keep until time=’sysdate+30′; –保存备份30天

5.重写configure exclude命令
backup databas noexclude keep forever tag=’test backup’;

6.检查数据库错误
backup validate database;
使用RMAN来扫描数据库的物理/逻辑错误,并不执行实际备份。

7.跳过脱机,不可存取或只读文件
backup database skip readonly;
backup database skip offline;
backup database skip inaccessible;
backup database ship readonly skip offline ship inaccessible;

8.强制备份
backup database force;

9.基于上次备份时间备份数据文件
1>只备份添加的新数据文件
backup database not backed up;
2>备份”在限定时间周期内”没有被备份的数据文件
backup database not backed up since time=’sysdate-2′;

10.备份操作期间检查逻辑错误
backup check logical database;
backup validate check logical database;

11.生成备份副本
backup database copies=2;

12.备份控制文件
backup database device type disk includ current controlfile;

建立映像副本
1、建立数据文件映像副本
RMAN>backup as copy format=’c:\df_5.dbf’ datafile 5; 或者
RMAN>copy datafile 5 to ‘c:\df_5.dbf’ ;
2、建立控制文件映像副本
RMAN>backup as copy format=’c:\demo.ctl’ current controlfile; 或者
RMAN>copy current controlfile to ‘c:\demo.ctl’;
3、建立归档日志映像副本
RMAN>backup as copy format=’c:\arc10.log’ archivelog sequence 10; 或者
RMAN>copy archivelog ‘c:\demo\archive\arc00020_012345.001′ to ‘c:\arc20.log’;
4、并行化建立映像副本
RMAN>configure device type disk parallelism 3;
RMAN>backup as copy format =’c:\df_%f.dbf’ datafile 5,6,7 ;
RMAN>configure device type disk clear;
5、指定映像副本标记
RMAN>backup as copy format=’c:\df_%f.dbf’ datafile 5 tag=df_5; 或者
RMAN>copy datafile 5 to ‘c:\df_%f.dbf’ tag=df_5;

二、RMAN恢复操作
RMAN完全恢复
1、恢复数据库
1)、所有数据文件被删除
c:\rman target sys/oracel@test nocatalog
RMAN>startup force mount
RMAN> run {
restore databse ;
recover database;
sql ‘alter database open’ ;
}
2)、数据文件所在磁盘出现硬件故障
RMAN> run {
startup force mount;
set newname for datafile 1 to ‘c:\demo\system01.dbf’;
set newname for datafile 2 to ‘c:\demo\dundotbs01.dbf’;
set newname for datafile 3 to ‘c:\demo\sysaux01.dbf’;
set newname for datafile 4 to ‘c:\demo\users01.dbf’;
set newname for datafile 5 to ‘c:\demo\example01.dbf’;
set newname for datafile 6 to ‘c:\demo\test0.dbf’;
restore database;
switch datafile all;
recover database;
sql ‘alter database open ‘;
}
2、恢复SYSTEM表空间的数据文件
1)、SYSTEM表空间的数据文件被误删除
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
restore datafile 1;
recover datafile 1;
sql ‘alter database open’ ;
}
2)、SYSTEM表空间数据文件所在的磁盘出现故障
RMAN> run {
startup force mount;
set newname for datafile 1 to ‘c:\demo\system01.dbf’;
restore datafile 1;
switch datafile 1;
recover datafile 1;
sql ‘alter database open’;
}
3、在OPEN状态下恢复关闭后意外丢失数据文件
1)、数据文件被删除
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 offline’;
sql ‘alter database open ‘;
restore datafile 4;
recover datafile 4;
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 online’;
}
2)、数据文件所在的磁盘出现损坏
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 offline’;
sql ‘alter database open ‘;
set newname for datafile 4 to ‘c:\demo\user01.dbf’;
restore datafile 4;
switch datafile 4;
recover datafile 4;
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 online’;
}
4、在OPEN状态下恢复打开时意外丢失的数据文件
1)、数据文件被误删除
RMAN>run {
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 offline’;
restore datafile 4;
recover datafile 4;
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 online’;
}
2)、数据文件所在磁盘出现故障
RMAN>run {
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 offline’;
set newname for datafile 4 to ‘c:\demo\user01.dbf’;
restore datafile 4;
switch datafile 4 ;
recover datafile 4;
sql ‘alter database datafile 4 online’;
}
5、在OPEN状态下恢复未备份的数据文件(创造新数据文件后没有进行过备份)
1)、数据文件被误
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
sql ‘alter database datafile 7 offline ‘;
sql ‘alter database open’;
restore datafile 7;
recover datafile 7;
sql ‘alter database datafile 7 online’;
}
2)、数据文件所在磁盘出现故障
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
sql ‘alter database datafile 7 offline ‘;
sql ‘alter database open’;
set newname for datafile 7 to ‘c:\demo\user04.dbf’;
restore datafile 7;
switch datafile 7;
recover datafile 7;
sql ‘alter database datafile 7 online’;
}

6、恢复表空间
1)、表空间被删除
RMAN>run {
sql ‘alter tablespace users offline for recover’;
restore tablespace users;
recover tablespace users;
sql ‘alter tablespace users online’;
}
2)、表空间的数据文件所在磁盘出现故障
RMAN>run {
sql ‘alter tablespace users offline for recover’;
set newname for datafile 4 to ‘c:\demo\user01.dbf’;
restore tablespace users;
switch tablespace users;
recover tablespace users;
sql ‘alter tablespace users online’;
}
7、数据块介质恢复
RMAN>blockrecover device type disk datafile 5 block 20,21,100 ;

RMAN不完全恢复
1、基本时间恢复
c:\set nls_date_format=yyyy-dd-mm hh24:mi:ss
c:\rman target sys/dddddd@train nocatalog
RMAN>run{
startup force mount;
set until time=’2010-09-09 13:00:00′;
restore database;
recover database;
sql ‘alter database open resetlogs’;
}
2、基于SCN恢复
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
set until scn=123456;
restore database;
recover database;
sql ‘alter database open resetlogs’;
}
3、基于日志序列号恢复
RMAN>run {
startup force mount;
set until sequence=58;
restore database;
recover database;
sql ‘alter database open resetlogs’;
}
4、基于备份控制文件恢复
c:\set nls_date_format=yyyy-dd-mm hh24:mi:ss
c:\rman target sys/oracle@test nocatalog
RMAN>startup force nomount;
RMAN>set dbid=1113606269;
RMAN>restore controlfile from autobackup maxseq 6;
RMAN>alter database mount;
RMAN>run {
set until time=’2010-09-5 12:00:08′;
restore database;
recover database;
sql ‘alter database open resetlogs;
}
当执行了上述4种不完全恢复之后,建议删除早期的所有备份,并重新备份数据库
RMAN>run {
delete noprompt backup;
delete noprompt copy;
backup database format=’c:\backup\%d_%s.bak’;
sql ‘alter system archive log current’;
}

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